Goldschmidt 2016: Sessions of Special Interest to DCO

The 26th Goldschmidt Conference will take place at the Pacifico Yokohama Conference Center, Yokohama, Japan, from 26 June - 1 July 2016.

On Sunday, 26 June, DCO is hosting a symposium in 5F Room 502, Pacifico Yokohama Conference Center from 9:00AM - 5:30PM. Whether you are local to the Yokohama area or are in town for Goldschmidt 2016, we welcome you to join us at the symposium for a full day of DCO-related talks. Members of the DCO Executive Committee will provide introductions to DCO's four science communities, followed by a series of invited speakers presenting recent exciting results from the Deep Life, Deep Energy, Reservoirs and Fluxes, and Extreme Physics and Chemistry Communities.

During Goldschmidt 2016, there are several sessions of special interest to DCO. On Tuesday, 28 June at 11:45AM Terry Plank will deliver a plenary lecture titled "The Volatile Input to Volcanoes and Eruption." Robert Hazen, Craig Manning, Kai-Uwe Hinrichs, Edward Young (2016 Geochemical Fellow), and Chris Ballentine are among several DCO scientists delivering keynote talks throughout the week of the conference. On Monday, 27 June at 1:45PM Alexandra Navrotsky will receive the VM Goldschmidt Award for her outstanding contributions to geochemistry. On Tuesday, 28 June at 8:30AM Antje Boetius will deliver the Endowed Biogeochemistry Lecture, and at 1:45PM Laurence Yeung will receive the FW Clarke Award, which recognizes outstanding contributions from early career scientists. 

Follow @deepcarb on Twitter for live updates from Goldschmidt 2016. 

The full program of the meeting is available here.

Please contact the DCO Engagement Team to add additional talks or sessions to this page. 

 

DCO Symposium

Symposium Organizing Committee: Eiji Ohtani (Tohoku University), Fumio Inagaki (JAMSTEC), Kagi Hiroyuki (University of Tokyo), and Yuji Sano (University of Tokyo).

The symposium opens with introductions by the Symposium Organizing Committee and DCO Executive Director Robert Hazen. Mitchell Sogin and Isabelle Daniel will introduce DCO's Deep Life and Deep Energy communities respectively, followed by keynote speaker Ken Takai and invited speakers David Wang and Yohei Suzuki. Marie Edmonds will introduce DCO's Reservoirs and Fluxes community followed by keynote speaker Hiroshi Shinohara and invited speakers Takanori Kagoshima, Takeshi Ohba, and Junichiro Ishibashi. The final session of the day consists of an introduction to the Extreme Physics and Chemistry Community by Craig Manning, and related talks by keynote speaker Toshiaki Iitaka and invited speakers Koichi Mimura and Hiroaki Ohfuji. We will conclude the Symposium with an opportunity for discussion with DCO Executive Committee members and closing comments from DCO Director Craig Schiffries. The Symposium represents a great opportunity to learn more about the latest in deep carbon research and meet other interested scientists from around the world. Registration is required, but FREE. Please see the symposium website for more details and/or contact Jennifer Mays (DCO Secretariat) for information.

 

Plenary Lecture

"The Volatile Input to Volcanoes and Eruption" given by Terry Plank (Tuesday, 28 June, 11:45AM - 12:45PM Main Hall)

 

Sessions

Theme 02: From Stars to Planets

02e: Chemistry of the Outer Solar System: Gas Giants, Ice Giants, Icy Moons, Icy Asteroids and Plutonian Objects

Conveners: Yasuhito Sekine, Julie C. Castillo-Rogez, Olivier Mousis, Edward Young, Hajime Yano, Marc Neveu, Alessandro Morbidelli, Nicolas Altobelli

Keynote: Bernard Marty (Université de Lorraine, France) Wednesday, 29 June, 10:30AM Room 303

Owing to the recent and ongoing spacecraft missions, knowledge and information on chemistry of the gas giants, icy satellites, icy asteroids and icy dwarf planets have provided. The significant amount of data on chemistry of the outer solar system allows geochemists, astrobiologists, and astrochemists to be involved in the outer solar system sciences, as the recent Mars missions have done for the last ten years. This session will cover following aspects on chemistry and physics of the outer solar system: Icy asteroids; Jovian system; Saturnian system; Subsurface oceans and potential habitability of icy moons; Formation models of gas giants and their icy satellites; Internal structures of gas and icy giants; Interior, surface and atmosphere of large icy bodies; Pluto and Charon; Formation theory of the solar system; Link to comets and asteroids; Cassini, Dawn, New Horizons, and future outer solar system missions.

 

Theme 03: Early Earth: Chemical, physical and biological dynamics

03c: Magma Oceanology

Conveners: Razvan Caracas, John Hernlund, Stéphane Labrosse, David Rubie, Richard J. Walker

Keynote: Rebecca Fischer (Smithsonian Institution, USA) Tuesday, 28 June, 9:15AM Room 304

Terrestrial planets and moons began their existence in an environment characterized by energetic accretion and large molten regions called magma oceans. Planetary cores were forged, primitive compositional heterogeneity was created, primordial atmospheres were outgassed, the first crust was formed, and the initial conditions for subsequent planetary evolution was set...by processes associated with magma oceans. Magma oceanology is therefore of critical importance to understanding the birth of terrestrial planets and moons and is a key bridge between research fields concerned with planetary formation, composition, and evolution. The main purpose of this workshop is to work toward the establishment of a common dialogue in the field of magma oceanology, to understand what has been learned in the past regarding magma oceans, and to identify grand challenge problems that motivate future research. In this session we particularly wish to highlight present uncertainties and to bring new ideas to the table for discussion.

 

Theme 04: Deep Earth

04d: Speciation, Distribution, Transport, and Impact of Volatile Elements in Earth’s Interior

Conveners: Huaiwei Ni, Oliver Lord, Marc Hirschmann, Andrew Thomson, Fabrice Gaillard, Kate Kiseeva, Takashi Yoshino, Dan Frost

Keynote: Rajdeep Dasgupta (Rice University, USA) Friday, 1 July, 8:45AM Room 301 

Keynote: Chris Ballentine (University of Oxford, UK) Friday, 1 July, 9:45AM Room 301

The major volatile elements, hydrogen, carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, and chlorine (H, C, S, N, and Cl) have petrological and geophysical influences disproportionate to their abundance, while the minor volatile elements, including the noble gases and halogens, act as vital geochemical tracers. These elements, many of which have multiple valence states, are present in variable forms and abundances in various regions of the Earth under different redox conditions. There is a strong tendency for them to be enriched in fluids and melts relative to coexisting minerals, and they are transported in Earth’s interior through a variety of physical and chemical processes, including subduction, devolatilization, melting, crystallization and volcanic eruption. H, C, N, S and Cl can induce marked effects on the phase relations (mineral phase transition, melting temperature, etc.), geochemical behavior (trace element partitioning, isotope fractionation, etc.), geophysical properties (mechanical strength, electrical conductivity, etc.) and oxidation state (indexed by oxygen fugacity) of the deep Earth, influencing plate tectonics and the formation of the hydrosphere, the atmosphere and mineral and energy resources. Knowledge about the speciation, distribution, transport and impact of these elements can provide critical clues for inferring the physicochemical conditions and processes in Earth’s interior and the evolution of the Earth as a habitable planet. However, many of the detailed mechanisms are still not well understood. We invite experimental, computational, petrological, geochemical and geophysical studies on all aspects of volatile elements in the solid earth.

04e: The Deep Carbon Cycle Through Time: From Experiment to Nature

Conveners: Vincenzo Stagno, Sonja Aulbach, Ohtani Eiji, Yuji Sano, Gregory Yaxley

Keynote: Craig Manning (University of California Los Angeles, USA) Wednesday, 29 June, 11:00AM Room 301

The importance of the speciation of carbon within the Earth stems from its role in promoting melting of rocks at variable mantle depths, producing a large spectrum of magmas that ultimately reach the surface, causing volcanic eruptions and degassing to the atmosphere. The study of the several different forms of deep carbon is critical for our understanding of mantle geodynamics and for capturing the exchanges between the innermost Earth and the exosphere, where carbon availability and chemistry have permitted life. The aim of this session is to link the several aspects of deep carbon processes, in particular, focusing on how carbon cycling has varied from the Archaean to the present day as a function of evolving intrinsic parameters, such as temperature and redox conditions, and how this has affected atmospheric evolution and the mobility of carbon in subduction zones. Thus, we welcome contributions both from experiment and nature that investigate 1) the mobility of carbon as a function of redox equilibria within peridotite and eclogite rocks, 2) the petrology and geochemical composition of diamonds, mantle xenoliths and CO2-rich magmas (kimberlites, melilitites and other ultrabasic melts) testifying to interaction with carbon-bearing fluids and melts and associated redox-changes at various stages of continental mantle evolution, (3) the efficiency of carbon recycling in subduction zones through time, and 4) the potential links between carbon mobility in Earth’s mantle and evolution of atmospheric composition.

 

Theme 05: From Mantle to Crust

05a: Crust-Mantle Processes: A Stable Isotope Perspective

Conveners: Fang Huang, Julie Prytulak, Shichun Huang, Michael Antonelli, Anat Shahar, Edwin Schauble, James Watkins

Mass exchange between mantle and crust controls the evolution of the Earth, other planets, and Moon. In the last decades, stable isotopes, from light elements such as Li, C, and O, to heavy ones, such as Mg, Si, V, Ca, Fe, and U, have been increasingly applied to a number of fundamental problems such as crust-mantle formation, magmatism, subduction, and hydrothermal processes. Our knowledge about the crust and mantle has been tremendously expanded with new tools from stable isotopes. This session invites contributions from, but not limited to, stable isotope studies on the crust and mantle systems of Earth and its Moon, and other planets using analytical, experimental, and theoretical approaches.

05b: Understanding Modern and Ancient Mantle Processes by Probing Mafic and Ultramafic Rocks of Oceanic and Continental Lithosphere

Conveners: Martin Guitreau, Jingao Liu, Alexander Sobolev, Peng Peng, Akira Ishikawa, Qiao Shu

Keynote: Graham Pearson (University of Alberta, Canada) Wednesday, 29 June, 8:30AM Room 302

Peridotites as a major lithology in the oceanic and continental mantle often provide complex evidence for melt depletion, refertilization and metasomatic events. Eclogites and pyroxenites, as minor lithologies, on the other hand, express the tectonothermal events ranging from subduction and recycling to melt migration. The investigations of both peridotites and eclogites/pyroxenites can further enhance our understanding of the formation, modification, and even destruction, as well as the thermotectonic history of the Earth’s lithospheric mantle, and also shed new light on constraining the geochemical evolution of the convecting mantle involved in these mantle processes. Studies of mantle-derived rocks (e.g., basalts and komatiites) available at the surface are complementary to understanding mantle sources and processes happening at depth, for which no direct sample is available. This session welcomes contributions on geochemical, petrological, mineralogical, experimental and interdisciplinary investigations that aim to understand the lithosphere in both oceanic and continental settings from deep time to the present day.

05g: The Deep Nitrogen Cycle and the Evolution of Planetary Atmospheres

Conveners: Sami Mikhail, Peter Barry, Benjamin Johnson, Mederic Palot

Keynote: Evelyn Füri (CRPG/CNRS, France) Thursday, 30 June, 1:45PM Room 302

Nitrogen is the most abundant element in Earth’s atmosphere and may represent a significant component within the metallic core, contributing to known density anomalies. However, the distribution of nitrogen in the mantle is still the subject of extensive debate. Recently, our overall understanding of the origin and behaviour of nitrogen in the silicate Earth has advanced considerably, and experimental data reveal that depending on the redox state, nitrogen can behave like an atmophile, siderophile, or large-ion lithophile element within the mantle. However, a great deal of work is yet to be done and open questions remain. For example: [1] Which segment of the layered Earth represents the largest nitrogen reservoir? [2] What is the flux of nitrogen between the mantle and atmosphere over time? [3] How much nitrogen was present in the Archean atmosphere? [4] How have the Earth’s nitrogen reservoirs evolved through time? There are numerous ways to investigate the deep nitrogen cycle, including HPHT experimental, theoretical approaches, interrogation of stable isotope data from terrestrial samples, comparative planetology (Venus, Mars, the Moon), and by considering cosmochemical datasets from Comet 67P, Asteroid 25143 Itokawa, Stardust, and chondrites. We invite contributions working towards constraining the relative sizes of the nitrogen reservoirs in Earth and other planets through time (core, mantle, crust, atmosphere), the origin(s) of nitrogen in telluric planets, the flux of nitrogen through subduction zones on Earth, and the cumulative effect of the deep nitrogen cycle on atmospheric chemistry.

 

Theme 06: Continental Crust

06a: The Composition and Structure of the Lower Continental Crust

Conveners: Jingliang Guo, Yongsheng Liu, Cin-Ty A Lee, Wen-Liang Xu, Peng Peng

The lower part of the continental crust, due to lacking of direct accessibility, keeps being mysterious. Huge debates arise in the last decades in regard of its formation mechanisms (e.g., arc magma differentiation, relamination and delamination) and geochemical compositions (e.g., mafic or more felsic). Studies on the geochronology, element and isotope geochemistry, petrology and geophysical properties of (1) deep-seated xenoliths from the lower crust depths or (2) exhumed high-grade metamorphic terrains that were originally lying in the deep crust, as well as geophysical studies on the lower continental or arc crusts may shed light on the formation and evolution of the lower continental crust. Other important issues, such as (1) the chemical heterogeneity of the lower continental crust, by comparing data from different tectonic regions (e.g., orogenic belts, inner cratonic areas, and island/continental arcs), (2) the different chemical models based on lower crustal xenoliths and high-grade metamorphic terrains, (3) the time-integrated evolution of the chemistry and structure of the lower continental crust, and (4) the mechanism and the rate of the recycling lower continental crust are also welcome. We hope that contributions from different discipline of geosciences will help better understand the chemical compositions as well as petrological and geophysical structures of the lower continental crust.

 

Theme 07: Subduction

07a: Cycling of Volatile Elements between Earth’s Interior and Exterior Through Subduction Zones

Conveners: Morihisa Hamada, Sami Mikhail, Peter Barry, Anne-Sophie Bouvier, Marie Edmonds, Estelle-Rose Koga, Vincenzo Stagno

Keynote: Elizabeth Cottrell (Smithsonian Institution, USA) Tuesday, 28 June, 8:30AM Room 315

Subduction of oceanic plates induces ingassing of volatile elements into the deep Earth, and volcanism outgasses volatile elements as fluids (e.g., hydrothermal fluids and dissolved volatiles in silicate melts), gasses (e.g., CO2 and SO2), and solids (e.g., sulfides and diamond). The ingassed volatile elements (such as H, C, N, S) play a significant role in buffering the oxidation state of the mantle, and outgassed volatile elements have a direct effect on the (paleo-)environmental conditions of the Earth’s habitable surface (climate, water activity etc.). Therefore, understanding the behavior and fluxes of volatile elements through subduction zones is paramount for modelling the evolution of both the solid Earth and the atmosphere through geological time. In this session, we welcome isotope geochemists, petrologists, volcanologists, and experimental/theoretical geochemists to discuss and debate the dynamic flux(es) of volatile elements between Earth’s interior and exterior, including but not limited to: [1] empirical studies of volatile elements in silicate melts and/or fluids at high temperature and high pressure conditions, [2] the role of redox state in volatile elements released from the mantle, [3] tracing volatile elements through the subduction-system using isotopes, and [4] the nature of volatile fluxes through geological time.

07d: Slab Processes and Slab-Mantle Interaction

Conveners: Yong-Fei Zheng, Hiroyuki Kagi, Joerg Hermann, Vincenzo Stagno, Alexei Perchuk, Andrey Bobrov, Tatsuhiko Kawamoto, Dmitry Zedgenizov

Mass transfer at the slab-mantle interface is primarily realized by fluids/melts from the subducting slab at different depths, resulting in metamorphic and magmatic products including diamondiferous substrates in the sublithospheric mantle. The deep cycle of crustal material is a key to these issues and involves the following aspects of subduction zone processes: (1) metamorphic dehydration and partial melting of subducting crustal rocks at high-pressure (HP) to ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) conditions; (2) hydration and metasomatism of the mantle wedge by fluids or diapirs derived from the slab; (3) partial melting of the hydrated and metasomatized mantle wedge for arc magmatism. Although HP to UHP metamorphism and supra-subduction-zone magmatism have received significant attention, it is still unclear how the fluids/melts interact with the mantle wedge; how the modified mantle wedge partially melts to produce arc magmas; how and where super-deep mantle assemblages are generated including those containing diamond and what the role is of deeply subducted crustal rocks in mantle geodynamics and petrogenesis. We invite contributions that address deep subduction-zone processes and slab-mantle interaction using mineralogical and geochemical tools from macroscale to microscale, including various approaches such as numerical modeling, laboratory experiments and field-based studies. The combination of the following two approaches is particularly welcomed: (1) new data from coesite- and diamond-bearing rocks and their bearing on the origin of deep-seated fluids/melts during metamorphism and anatexis; (2) studies of phase equilibria under mantle P-T conditions relevant to the evolution of deeply subducted crustal rocks.

 

Theme 08: Volcanoes and Hazards

08c: Establishing and Understanding Links between Seismicity and Gas Chemistry in Tectonically and Volcanically Active Regions

Conveners: David Hilton, Guodong Zheng, Zhengfu Guo, Yuji Sano

We solicit contributions that report on the chemistry and isotope systematics of gas emanations in volcanically- and seismically-active regions of Earth’s crust. Such emanations could include fumaroles, hot springs, groundwaters or gas seeps, and noble gases, major volatiles (CO2, N2, CH4), and trace gases (including higher hydrocarbons) are of particular interest. Both short and long-term monitoring studies are relevant especially if they are of sufficient sampling frequency to capture transient anomalies in the gas record. We are also interested in new developments in sampling/field instrumentation approaches that improve or complement standard sampling techniques. We aim to document and explain both pre- and post-event changes in gas characteristics, including fluxes, that can inform about magma movement, changes in subsurface permeability (faulting) and/or gas provenance issues. Ultimately, we aim to assess the relationship, if any, between variability in the gas record and active processes of volcanic and earthquake activity.

08e: Crystallization Histories and Degassing: From Melt Inclusions to Plumbing Systems

Conveners: Chiara Maria Petrone, Fidel Costa, Marie Edmonds, Madeleine Humphreys, Julia Hammer

Geophysical and geochemical monitoring data allows us to anticipate and forecast eruptions. However, it is also necessary to have conceptual models of the plumbing system of the volcano at depth. Is there a single magma reservoir, or multiple interconnected melt lenses? Is magma replenishment the main process that drives eruptions? Single crystals and melt inclusions shed light on pre-eruptive processes, magma ascent and eruption triggering mechanisms. They also allow reconstruction of the magmatic variables such as time, temperature, pressure and oxidation state during fractionation, mixing and magma degassing. This session aims at contributions that use observations from crystals and melt inclusions as well as petrological and thermal models to reconstruct the processes and variables that occur during magma storage prior to eruptions and which may build conceptual models of plumbing systems.

08f: Magmatic Volatiles: Sources, Fluxes and Sinks

Conveners: Hiroshi Shinohara, Alessandro Aiuppa, Yuri Taran, Jacob Lowenstern, Pierre Delmelle

Keynote: Giovanni Chiodini (INGV, Italy) Monday, 27 June, 1:45PM Room 315

Magmatic volatiles play a critical role in magma generation, ascent, and eruption. Volatile metal and gas emissions influence the chemistry of the atmosphere, ocean and soils, thereby creating a range of environmental effects. They also contribute to formation of geothermal energy and hydrothermal mineral resources. Aspects of volatiles are studied in different fields such as petrology, volcanology, economic geology, environmental studies and soil sciences, yet an integrated approach to their study is clearly beneficial. This session at the Goldschmidt conference offers an occasion to gather experts on diverse aspects of volatile behavior, including solubility, degassing, partitioning, ore formation, atmospheric and environmental impacts and geochemical cycling. By providing a variety of perspectives, the session aims to enhance our understanding of diverse aspects of volatile geochemistry. This session focuses on field, analytical, experimental or theoretical studies of individual or a regional volcanic systems. This sessions links with session : “Subduction zone volcanism and its effects on climate, atmosphere, environment and vice versa“ where longer time series and large-scale studies of subduction zone volcanism are more the focus.

 

Theme 10: Energy Resources

10d: Geochemistry of Hydrocarbon and Non-Hydrocarbon Gases in Petroleum Systems

Conveners: Chunfang Cai, Geoffrey S. Ellis, Keyu Liu

Keynote: John Eiler (California Institute of Technology, USA) Tuesday, 28 June, 8:30AM Room 419

Meeting the growing demand for energy in an environmentally sustainable manner is one of the greatest challenges facing society in the 21st century. Natural gas is the least carbon intensive fossil fuel, and is widely regarded as an important bridge to a renewable energy future. Assessments of the global endowment of natural gas resources have substantially increased in recent years, due to advances in petroleum engineering that have led to the economic development of unconventional gas accumulations. Efficient and environmentally responsible development of these abundant resources requires a thorough understanding of the processes that lead to the formation of these accumulations. This session focuses on current research on the geochemistry of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon gases related to energy resources. Topics covered include the generation, expulsion, migration, trapping, and alteration of natural gases in sedimentary basins. In particular, investigations of the chemical reaction mechanisms and kinetics of hydrocarbon formation, sorption, diffusion, and degradation (both biodegradation, and abiotic reactions such as thermochemical sulfate reduction) are critical to understanding these processes. The session aims to bring together researchers from the fields of organic and inorganic geochemistry as well as microbiology and computational sciences to provide the interdisciplinary insights that are required to understand these complex systems. Presentations on the development of new theoretical approaches (e.g., quantum chemistry molecular modeling) or analytical techniques (e.g., clumped isotopes) as well as field-based case studies related to understanding both conventional and unconventional natural gas resources are encouraged.

10e: Role of the Pore-Scale Heterogeneities on Reactive Transport Processes: Experimental and Numerical Approaches

Conveners: Linda Luquot, Catherine Noiriel, Maria Garcia-Rios

Keynote: Benjamin Tutolo (Oxford Universisty, UK) Wednesday, 29 June 9:30AM Room 419

Predicting reactive transport at large scale, i.e., Darcy- and field- scale, is still challenging considering the number of heterogeneities that may be present at the pore-scale. It is well documented that conventional continuum-scale approaches oversimplify and/or ignore many important aspects of fluid displacement and transport at pore-scale, e.g., mixing and (bio)-reaction processes which, as a consequence, result in large uncertainties when applied to field-scale operations. The changes in flow and reactive transport across spatial and temporal scales are of central concern in many geological applications such as groundwater systems, geo-energy, rock building heritage and geological storage. The aim of this session is to integrate contributions in new experimental, numerical, and theoretical approaches to quantify transport, reaction, and mixing phenomena and their coupling in hydrological systems. This includes (but not limited to) conservative and reactive transport, multi-scale computational and experimental studies of multiphase flow, reactive solute transport, dissolution and precipitation reactions, as well as pore-scale visualization of dynamic processes.

10h: Geothermal of the Future: Geochemistry in Supercritical Conditions and New Techniques to Reveal Old Fluid Histories

Conveners: Isabelle Chambefort, Noriyoshi Tsuchiya, Greg Bignall, Dana Thomas, Jill McDermott, Esther Schwarzenbach

In the last decade several world wide geothermal research and drilling projects targeted high enthalpy to supercritical conditions. Deep seated high temperature geothermal systems are the ultimate sustainable reservoirs. Results, missteps and lessons have been learnt from JBBP (Japan Beyond Brittle Project), IDDP (Iceland Deep Drilling Project) and other projects, relating to EGS. This session proposes to address results and to open discussion following research endeavors operated in the extreme high temperature to supercritical conditions. Case studies from the field, as well as experiment-based studies are welcome along with combined solubility, partitioning, and in-situ spectroscopy experiments, and geochemical or hydrological modelling of hydrothermal-magmatic processes. To gather geochemists interested in quantifying the timescales of geothermal systems, this session invites contributions that describe temporal variability over short to long timescales; work to constrain rates of reactions; or analyze the timing of hydrothermal processes, fossil and modern. We encourage diverse submissions that combine datasets and employ a range of tools, including field observations, fluid and heat flow realizations, reactive transport modeling, chemical and isotopic data, radiometric dating, and experimental approaches.

 

Theme 12: Ocean and Atmosphere: Past and Present

12c: Organic Carbon Burial and Seawater Oxygenation: From Past Changes to Future Challenges

Conveners: José M. Mogollón, Theodore Them, Antje Boetius, Hans Brumsack, David B. Kemp, Gert De Lange

Throughout the Earth’s history, the redox state of the oceans played a major role on the evolution of marine ecosystems and the global cycles of biologically important elements. Particularly in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, climate perturbations and changing circulation patterns culminated in the development of ocean anoxic events (OAEs) or other intervals of expanded marine oxygen deficiency. These events are generally defined by the widespread appearance of Corg-enriched units such as sapropels and black shales in the sedimentary record. However, the geochemical and sedimentological record of OAEs suggests that the Earth system response to warming and the subsequent development of seawater anoxia was highly variable both spatially and temporally. Likewise, in the Anthropocene, the relationship between global warming, changes in hydrology, eutrophication and oxygen depletion is often non-linear due to sedimentary feedbacks. Investigating modern and past systems can help us understand the physical, climatological, and biogeochemical interactions that affect seawater oxygen content and ultimately unravel the likely response of future oceans to continuing anthropogenic and climate pressures. This session welcomes attempts to better understand the evolution of redox dynamics in the oceans and its relationship to the carbon cycle from the Mesozoic to present day and into the future. We particularly encourage (multi)proxy geochemical and theoretical (modeling) studies. Furthermore, we also welcome contributions that seek to discern the relative importance of carbon preservation vs. production in the formation of distinctly organic-rich units such as sapropels and black shales.

12f: Marine Biogeochemistry at a Range of Scales: The Global Ocean and Polar Atmosphere-Sea Ice-Ocean Systems

Conveners: Susan Little, Daiki Nomura, Gregory de Souza, Markus Frey, Delphine Lannuzel, Jun Nishioka, Patrick Rafter, Martin Vancoppenolle

Medal: Antje Boetius (Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Germany) Tuesday, 28 June, 8:30AM Room416+417

Throughout the Earth’s history, the redox state of the oceans played a major role on the evolution of marine ecosystems and the global cycles of biologically important elements. Particularly in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, climate perturbations and changing circulation patterns culminated in the development of ocean anoxic events (OAEs) or other intervals of expanded marine oxygen deficiency. These events are generally defined by the widespread appearance of Corg-enriched units such as sapropels and black shales in the sedimentary record. However, the geochemical and sedimentological record of OAEs suggests that the Earth system response to warming and the subsequent development of seawater anoxia was highly variable both spatially and temporally. Likewise, in the Anthropocene, the relationship between global warming, changes in hydrology, eutrophication and oxygen depletion is often non-linear due to sedimentary feedbacks. Investigating modern and past systems can help us understand the physical, climatological, and biogeochemical interactions that affect seawater oxygen content and ultimately unravel the likely response of future oceans to continuing anthropogenic and climate pressures. This session welcomes attempts to better understand the evolution of redox dynamics in the oceans and its relationship to the carbon cycle from the Mesozoic to present day and into the future. We particularly encourage (multi)proxy geochemical and theoretical (modeling) studies. Furthermore, we also welcome contributions that seek to discern the relative importance of carbon preservation vs. production in the formation of distinctly organic-rich units such as sapropels and black shales.

Theme 14: Biogeochemistry

14c: Sources and Fate of Carbon in Hydrothermal Systems

Conveners: Tamara Baumberger, Cody Sheik, Esther Schwarzenbach

Hydrothermal vents, both in deep and shallow-ocean environments, are geochemical conduits that link the subsurface to the oceans. Underlying host rock-water interactions in diverse lithological settings (i.e. basalt, mantle rocks, or sediments) and temperature regimes provide reduced carbon substrates that power chemosynthesis and heterotrophy in the sub-seafloor and focused and diffuse hydrothermal vent biospheres. Thus, carbon is playing a key role in linking both, microbial and hydrothermal activity. Whether derived from the mantle, deep crustal seawater or organic matter sedimentation, carbon and its various forms is an intrinsic feature of hydrothermal fluids that can fuel microbial metabolism not only in the sub-seafloor, but also at local and regional scales via hydrothermal plumes. Additionally, microbial chemosynthesis within fluids drives near vent productivity and the cadre of animals that inhabit these ecosystems. This session seeks to address the open questions as to the sources and fate of carbon in hydrothermal systems, both shallow and deep. We encourage contributions from a multi-disciplinary research community investigating the complex interplay between abiogenic and biogenic processes in these settings. We also welcome contributions focused on alteration processes in oceanic lithosphere exposed on the continents and their consequences for the carbon cycle.

14g: Deep Biosphere: Biogeochemical Elemental Cycles, Serpentinization and Evolution of Life in the Earth’s Interior

Conveners: Fumio Inagaki, Shuhei Ono, Yohey Suzuki, Li-Hung Lin, Mitchell L. Sogin, Fengping Wang, Adam J Williamson, Anna Neubeck

Keynote: Kai-Uwe Hinrichs (University of Bremen, Germany) Monday, 27 June, 2:45PM Room 503

Keynote: Tullis Onstott (Princeton University, USA) Tuesday, 28 June, 9:15AM Room 503

Multiple lines of evidence for the presence and activity in the deep biosphere have transformed our view of Earth’s ecosystems and biogeochemical elemental cycles. Over the past decade, extensive research opportunities of the marine and terrestrial deep biosphere demonstrated the occurrence of aerobic and anaerobic subsurface microbial habitats, whereas environmental factors that limit population, diversity, and activity of deep life remain largely unknown. While the occurrence of heterotrophic microbial ecosystems has been documented up to a few km-deep subseafloor sediments, water-rock reactions (e.g., serpentinization, water radiolysis, fault activity) can also fuel deep subsurface biospheres in terrestrial and marine settings. Genomic information of subsurface microbial communities has drastically increased at single-cell to community levels on regional to global scales. However, some key issues remain largely elusive: e.g., genetic and metabolic functions, eco-physiology and community networks, strategies for long-term survival on geological time scales, and origins and evolution of deep life and the biosphere. In this session, we would like to create a forum for recent exciting results in the deep-biosphere geomicrobiology and biogeochemistry. We welcome papers studying Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya, and viruses in both crustal and sedimentary subsurface environments, biogeochemical processes of serpentinization (e.g., origin of methane and hydrogen, local and global flux) and its microbial habitat, ecosystem consequence to tectonic activities, genetic and functional characteristics and evolution, energetic and other constraints that may define biotic-abiotic transition zones, and topics relevant to new cultivation and analytical techniques that will enhance exploration of deep-biosphere frontiers.

14k: Coupled Biogeochemical Cycling of Iron, Manganese, Sulfur, Chromium, and Associated Elements: Past and Present

Conveners: Sergei Katsev, Kathryn Schreiner, Cody Sheik, Christopher Oze, Scott Fendorf, Peter Nico, Amy Gartman, Aude Picard, Natascha Riedinger, Elizabeth Swanner

Coupled biogeochemical cycles of major redox-sensitive metals, sulfur, and associated elements are critically important in sediments, water columns, soils, and groundwater, as they influence numerous processes, including mobilization of nutrients, pollutants and toxic metals, as well as sustain “cryptic” cycles. They also strongly influenced global carbon and oxygen cycling throughout Earth’s history. Despite decades of extensive research, several key questions remain understudied. The role of microorganisms in the transformation of sulfur and iron in anoxic environments is still poorly understood. Cycling of S at low sulfate reduction rates, such as in freshwater or oceans of the Early Earth, received little attention, particularly the contributions from organic sulfur compounds that are released during organic matter mineralization. Contamination of groundwater and surface water with excessive levels of Cr(VI) is a widespread water quality issue, tightly linked to the metal’s redox cycling. We invite contributions looking at the connections between geochemistry and geobiology of Fe, Mn, S, Cr, and related elements in ancient and modern sediments, water column, and hydrothermal systems. This includes field sample analysis and laboratory experiments of rates and processes, biogeochemical cycling and biomineral transformations, isotopic fractionations, biogeochemical evolutions, and organic matter and microbially integrated studies.

 

Theme 15: Environmental Geochemistry and Anthropogenic Impacts

15n: Formation and Alteration of Carbonates in Natural and Anthropogenic Settings: Mechanisms and Environmental Proxies

Conveners: Ronny Boch, Martin Dietzel, Tobias Kluge, Kirsten van Zuilen, Vasileios Mavromatis

Keynote: Donald J. DePaolo (University of California Berkeley, USA) Monday, 27 June, 3:15PM Room 411+412

Fluid-solid interactions result in anhydrous/hydrous carbonate mineral precipitation in natural environments and in technical processes. The importance of the fluid-solid mechanisms initiated a broad field of fundamental and applied research that involves laboratory and field-based approaches. The study of carbonate mineral formation and alteration is the key for interpreting element and isotope data and includes the detailed investigation of nucleation and surface-controlled growth mechanisms. The interplay between thermodynamic equilibria and growth kinetics influences (trace)element and isotope fractionation during carbonate formation and alteration. Detailed understanding of these processes holds a great potential for multi-proxy approaches in (paleo)environmental and mineral-genetic studies. We invite contributions related to specific aspects of carbonate precipitation and alteration in experimental setups as well as in natural and man-made environments. These include the study of mineral formation and/or transformation under laboratory conditions, carbonates in the field of material sciences (e.g. metastable amorphous carbonates) and field-based experiments (e.g. monitoring of precipitation dynamics). Regarding natural systems emphasis is put on carbonates from ambient or hydrothermal growth environments such as caves and karst systems, travertine and carbonate tufa depositing streams, coatings and veins in fractures and joints, soil concretions, evaporitic carbonates, diagenesis and (de)dolomitization. Carbonate deposition in anthropogenic settings can cause severe problems for continuous operation and can lead to a negative economic perspective of installations. We encourage contributions on applied topics such as carbonate precipitates in geotechnical constructions, geothermal scaling in boreholes and pipelines, and fostered carbonate formation in the course of long-term CO2 sequestration in the subsurface.

15o: Biogeochemical Cycles in the Anthropocene: Tailoring Earth’s Geochemistry for a Sustainable Future

Conveners: Talitha Santini, Bree Morgan, Siobhan Wilson

Keynote: Robert Hazen (George Mason University, USA) Friday, 1 July, 1:45PM Room 411+412

Managing the environmental impacts of human activities requires a fundamental understanding of how Earth’s geochemical settings have changed during the Anthropocene. Human activities that disturb natural systems and biogeochemical cycles are recorded in shifts in the mineralogical composition of the lithosphere and geochemical conditions in the hydrosphere. The resulting biogeochemical signatures recorded at Earth’s surface include, but are not limited to, changes in mineralogy, variations in trace element concentrations/ratios, and alterations in major element cycles including C, Fe, S. These anthropogenic signatures provide a fingerprint for identification of environmental perturbations (e.g., acid mine/soil drainage, nutrient pollution, CO2 uptake in carbonates). A more complete understanding of how natural biogeochemical cycles and mineralogical compositions shift as a result of anthropogenic influence can potentially be used as a powerful tool to tailor geochemical conditions for environmental management and remediation. This session invites contributions related to shifts in natural biogeochemical signatures and mineralogical assemblages driven by human modification of Earth surface environments or industrial processes. We are particularly interested in studies that document and seek to leverage anthropogenic perturbations to tailor and manage Earth’s biogeochemical cycles for a sustainable future. This encompasses fundamental and applied approaches to sequestration of gaseous and aqueous pollutants during mineral formation (e.g., CO2, heavy metals), rehabilitation of industrial and mine landscapes, and utilisation of geochemistry to modify the function of landscapes and ecosystems. Laboratory, field-based and modelling approaches that can be used to accurately predict evolution of Anthropocene geochemical conditions and mineralogical assemblages are encouraged.

 

Theme 17: Frontiers in Analytical and Computational Techniques

17b: New Approaches to Highlight Isotopic Equilibrium and Disequilibrium Recorded in Carbonates from Traditional Isotopes to Clumped Isotopes and Triple Oxygen Isotopes

Conveners: Weiqiang Li, Josh Wimpenny, Anat Shahar

Medal: Laurence Yeung (Rice University, USA) Tuesday, 28 June, 1:45PM Room 313+314

The field of so called "non-traditional stable isotope geochemistry", or metal stable isotope geochemistry, has been booming for over a decade. With improved analytical capabilities, variations in isotopic compositions of many new isotope systems have been discerned from natural samples. Interpretation of the observed isotopic variations, however, is limited by the lack of knowledge on basic isotope fractionation factors between minerals, aqueous solutions, and species in the solution, and isotope fractionation behavior during kinetic processes. This session highlights recent advances in calibration of isotope fractionation factors using different approaches, including laboratory experiments and field observations. We welcome a broad range of contributions that involve relevant progresses in any stable isotope system, from the metal stable isotopes such as Fe, Mg, Ca, Cu, Cr, Mo, Hg, U, to more conventional light stable isotopes such as C, O, H, S. We encourage contributions focusing on innovative approach and new concept in calibrating stable isotope fractionation factors.

17c: Progress in Calibrating Isotope Fractionation Factors: Laboratory Experiments and Field Observations

Conveners: Weiqiang Li, Josh Wimpenny, Anat Shahar

Keynote: Edward Young (University of California Los Angeles, USA) Thursday, 30 June, 1:45PM Room 313+314

The field of so called "non-traditional stable isotope geochemistry", or metal stable isotope geochemistry, has been booming for over a decade. With improved analytical capabilities, variations in isotopic compositions of many new isotope systems have been discerned from natural samples. Interpretation of the observed isotopic variations, however, is limited by the lack of knowledge on basic isotope fractionation factors between minerals, aqueous solutions, and species in the solution, and isotope fractionation behavior during kinetic processes. This session highlights recent advances in calibration of isotope fractionation factors using different approaches, including laboratory experiments and field observations. We welcome a broad range of contributions that involve relevant progresses in any stable isotope system, from the metal stable isotopes such as Fe, Mg, Ca, Cu, Cr, Mo, Hg, U, to more conventional light stable isotopes such as C, O, H, S. We encourage contributions focusing on innovative approach and new concept in calibrating stable isotope fractionation factors.

17d: Frontiers in Micro-Spatial Geochronology and Isotopic Techniques

Conveners: Fernando Corfu, James Darling, Matthew Horstwood, Desmond Moser, Steven Reddy, Paul Sylvester, Kimberly Tait, Michael Wiedenbeck, Jon Woodhead

High spatial resolution material science and geochemical techniques (e.g. Atom Probe, EBSD, FIB/SEM/TEM, CL, SIMS, LA-(MC)-ICPMS) now make it possible to measure isotopic features as well as relative and absolute geologic time at the nano-scale, with attendant advances in the understanding of many fundamental Earth and planetary processes. This session brings together both end-users of micro- to nano-scale isotope and orientation microstructure data and the analysts who operate at this sampling scale. We will showcase the latest technological developments and new applications, providing novel observations, improved data quality and/or sample throughput on a wide range of Solar System materials. Contributions describing new hardware, reference materials relevant to the calibration of isotope ratio analyses and particularly methodological innovations using case studies are all welcome.

 

Theme 18: Mineralogy and Mineral Physics

18b: Mineral Replacement, Alteration, Stability and Reactivity on Earth and Other Bodies of the Solar System

Conveners: Hongwu Xu, Hiroshi Kojitani, Huifang Xu, Timothy J. Fagan, Daniel Harlov, Adrian Brearley, Agnes Elmaleh, Olivier Vidal, Martine Gerard

Medal: Alexandra Navrotsky (University of California at Davis, USA) Monday, 27 June, 1:45PM Main Hall

Many geological processes are strongly influenced by the thermodynamic stability and chemical reactivity of minerals, and investigating these minerals as well as replacement and alteration assemblages and their textures can provide clues to the geological processes as well as their impact on the composition of the exosphere and on ecosystems. Aqueous fluids play a key role, as they transport reacting species and may be involved in dissolution and re-precipitation. This session will cover experimental and computational studies on minerals at relevant temperature, pressure, and/or aqueous conditions, and studies of mineral alteration based on experiment, theoretical modelling and natural samples. Areas of interest include but are not limited to high pressure and/or temperature phase transformations/relations of mantle minerals, stability and kinetics of nanophases/nanopores in the environment, mineral-fluid reactions at various scenarios (e.g., COsequestration), mineral replacement with mineral deposits or environmental issues, and implications of alteration reactions in the broader context of geologic evolution of distinct settings on the Earth and other planetary bodies.

18c: Mineral Physics of the Earth's Interior: Constraints on the Chemistry and Physics of our Planet from Experimental and Computational Studies

Conveners: Ryosuke Sinmyo, Vincenzo Stagno, Catherine McCammon, Tetsuya Komabayashi, Jun Tsuchiya, Razvan Caracas, Xianlong Wang

Recent progress on the physics and chemistry of crystal structures at extreme conditions as well as extraordinary advances in computational material science techniques such as first principles calculation methods provide new insight to geochemical and geophysical problems, for example that the deep Earth may host novel oxides, silicates and carbonates whose stability relations can influence geophysical observables and geodynamics of the Earth’s mantle at variable depths. The direct correlation between crystal structure and electronic state of transition elements dominantly controls the elasticity, transport properties and element partitioning of the mineral phases under pressure. In addition, the recent finding of new iron-bearing oxides with exotic stoichiometry implies a re-evaluation of possible redox equilibria and, in turn, melting relations within mantle assemblages. This session invites contributions on 1) the chemistry and physics of minerals under high pressures and high temperatures based on both experimental and theoretical studies, 2) electronic state and its effect on physical properties, 3) redox equilibria within terrestrial assemblages involving new phases and available thermodynamic data, 4) geodynamic and ab initio modelling as a tool to provide insight into the deep Earth and provide guidance for future research in mineral physics. We encourage discussions of methodological development toward better modelling of geochemical and geophysical processes such as isotope fractionation, the determination of transport properties, and so on.

18e: Carbon Minerals in Planetary Interiors

Conveners: Craig Manning, Wendy Mao, Ohtani Eiji, James Badro, Chris Tulk

Keynote: Michael Walter (University of Bristol, UK) Friday, 1 July, 9:00AM Main Hall

The deep carbon cycle in Earth and other planetary bodies depends on the structure and stability of carbon-bearing minerals at high pressure and temperature. Recent advances are providing new insights into novel structures and properties of native carbon phases, carbonate minerals, ices, clathrates, carbides, and phases containing trace carbon. Results highlight the existence of tetrahedral coordination of carbon by oxygen, the possibility of carbonate-silicate solid solutions, the role of the spin transition in Fe on carbonate stability, and the compressibility of diamond at conditions of the Earth’s core. We welcome contributions based on any combination of computational, experimental, and theoretical mineral physics and petrology, including work on individual carbon-bearing phases and on their stability and reactivity with multiphase mineral assemblages

Further Reading

DCO Highlights Goldschmidt 2018: Sessions of Special Interest to DCO

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DCO Highlights Deep Carbon Observatory at AGU Fall Meeting 2017

We expect another large contingent of DCO researchers to descend upon the AGU Fall Meeting on 11–15…

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