The purpose of this meeting, which took place at the Institut de Physique du Globe du Paris, France, from 30 September to 1 October 2014, was to bring together the DECADE board of directors to discuss current progress on DECADE activities, and to plan activities for the next two years.
Currently, 12 volcanoes are continuously monitored for SO2 flux and CO2/SO2 ratios that are used for calculation of CO2 flux as part of the DECADE network. Four of these monitoring systems have been funded by DECADE, and one more volcano will have permanent monitoring installed later this year, bringing the total number of continuously monitored volcanoes to 13 globally. For gas monitoring, the multiGAS CO2/SO2 stations are seamlessly integrated with the NOVAC SO2 flux stations and data are streamed to local observatories for processing. All participants at the meeting strongly agreed on the importance of maintaining current network activities through sustained support from DCO. Two additional targets have been prioritized after extensive discussions: White Island in New Zealand and Nevado del Ruiz in Colombia. Merapi in Java is also a possibility (official request from BPPTKG Observatory in Java), but perhaps less of a priority given current low levels of activity at this volcano. Gorely in Kamchatka also remains as a possibility.
New satellite-based gas measurements guided discussions on the largest current SO2 degassing volcanoes on Earth. The consensus opinion of the DECADE group is that the volcanoes identified in this way, but that have never been directly measured for CO2 emission, are important targets for joint DECADE expeditions. These include Dukono, Ibu, Gamalama, Soputan, Karangetan, Lokon (all Sulawesi and Halmahera) and Ulawun, Bagana, Manam (all Papua New Guinea). Member surveys and discussions in the meeting identified two additional targets: Ubinas (Peru) and Oldoinyo Lengai (Tanzania). The proposed mixture of targets will help DECADE address several big questions: 1) What controls the CO2/SO2 ratio from arc to arc? Can we identify a magmatic C/S for each arc? 2) Why are some volcanoes degassing huge amounts of CO2 without eruptions and others are not? 3) How can we best extrapolate measurements of a relatively small number of volcanoes to all degassing volcanoes globally? And 4) what is the eruptive vs. passive CO2 flux from volcanoes?
The group also discussed new SO2 camera technology, which shows promise for gas flux monitoring in some locations, depending on vent and plumegeometry. The need for a DECADE rapid response team to eruptions was articulated by members following the meeting in order to address quantification of eruptive vs. passive CO2 flux. The DECADE database portal is being developed, and data have already been entered in MAGA and EarthChem. More work is needed on the database, and agreements with observatories are needed to establish data policies.
A Decade session, with contributing members, will be held during the 12th Field Workshop of IAVCEI CCVG Commission in Chile (November 16-24, 2014).
The meeting ended with a teleconference to the Executive Committee Meeting in Los Angeles with the DECADE chair and co-chair providing information on the governance structure and legacy activities.
Organizers: Patrick Allard, co-chair, DECADE, Tobias Fischer, chair, DECADE
Participants: DECADE BOD: Alessandro Aiuppa, Palermo University and INGV Palermo, Giovanni Chiodini, INGV Napoli, Bo Galle, Chalmers University, Bernard Marty, CNRS-CRPG, Nancy, Hiroshi Shinohara, GSJ, Tsukuba
Invited participants: Simon Carn, Michigan Tech, Gustavo Garzon, Colombian Geological Survey, Cali, Christoph Kern, USGS-CVO, Dimitry Melnikov, IVS Kamchatka, Sergey Ushakov, IVS Kamchatka
Image: IEDA DECADE data base portal http://decade.iedadata.org