A new book by DCO Executive Director Robert Hazen celebrates carbon in all its forms. The book provides a tour through almost 14 billion years of the history of the universe, from the birth of carbon inside stars, to the evolution of life, and the modern-day climate crisis. Read more...
Letter from the Director
DCO Executive Committee Chair Craig Manning has written a letter to the DCO community about celebrating the first decade of deep carbon science and launching the next. As part of its synthesis activities in 2019, DCO is publishing 10 books and special issues of journals in its 10th year.
The first of these books, Symphony in C: Carbon and the Evolution of (Almost) Everything, by DCO Executive Director Robert Hazen, hit the shelves earlier this month. The book provides a tour through almost 14 billion years of the history of the universe, from the birth of carbon inside stars, to the evolution of life, and the modern-day climate crisis. Hazen’s sweeping history of carbon is the first of four DCO books that will be published in 2019.
Two special issues of journals were also published this month: “Deep Matter and Energy,” which highlights the role of deep volatiles in mediating Earth processes, is a collection of papers in the journal Engineering edited by Ho-Kwang Mao and Chengwei Sun; and “Carbon Degassing Through Volcanoes and Active Tectonic Regions” in Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems is edited by Tobias Fischer, Alessandro Aiuppa, and Marie Edmonds.
A provocative paper in Nature proposes that surface erosion events controlled the evolution of plate tectonics on Earth. DCO member Stephan Sobolev first presented the hypothesis discussed in this paper at a DCO-sponsored workshop on the Origin and Evolution of Plate Tectonics.
DCO scientists are also developing a broad portfolio of research grants that will provide continuing support for deep carbon science in 2020 and beyond. One of these, the ENIGMA project on the Evolution of Nanomachines in Geospheres and Microbial Ancestors, has been awarded a $6 million NASA grant to investigate how Earth’s chemistry and geology enabled proteins to evolve. Paul Falkowski leads the project, which includes DCO members Robert Hazen, Shaunna Morrison, Joy Buongiorno, and Donato Giovannelli.
DCO Executive Committee member Karen Lloyd is communicating deep carbon science to broad audiences through her TED talk on the distribution and role of deep subsurface microbes.
Looking ahead, a large contingent of DCO scientists will present their research at Goldschmidt 2019 on 18–23 August 2019 in Barcelona, Spain. Please consider submitting an abstract to one of the many sessions of special interest to the DCO community at the 2019 American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting in San Francisco, USA. The abstract deadline is 31 July 2019.
We also encourage you to nominate DCO early career scientists for the 2019 DCO Emerging Leader Awards by 15 July 2019.
Last but not least, congratulations to Marie Edmonds on her appointment as Professor at the University of Cambridge, and to Patrick Allard for his election as President of the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI).
Craig Schiffries, DCO Director
Carnegie Institution for Science, Geophysical Laboratory
Washington DC, USA
A Letter from Craig Manning, DCO Executive Committee Chair, to the DCO Community
As of 1 July 2019, we have 184 days left in DCO’s current configuration before we launch the next decade of deep carbon science. The initial decadal program has been filled with transformational discoveries, successful collaborations, and extraordinary advances in understanding how deep carbon affects planetary processes, exemplified in the more than 1400 publications in the bibliography of contributions to the DCO. This decade of discovery has laid a strong foundation for deep carbon science continuing well beyond 2019. Many programs that will continue beyond 2019 are already underway, carrying on DCO’s ethos of multidisciplinary investigations of big questions. More are sure to follow. Read more...
Erosion Greased the Wheels of Plate Tectonics
Since the 1960s, scientists have accepted that mantle convection—the lava lamp-like churning of Earth’s interior, where hot mantle material near the core rises and cooler, denser, material near the surface sinks back down – moves the tectonic plates on Earth’s crust. But what if processes on the surface, like erosion and climate, are also powerful factors affecting tectonic activity? A new paper in Nature proposes that tectonic plate movements were made possible by giant continental erosion events caused by widespread glaciers in the past. The resulting sediments coming into the oceans lubricated subduction zones, where the edge of one plate sinks beneath another into the mantle. DCO Reservoirs and Fluxes, and Extreme Physics and Chemistry Community member Stephan Sobolev (German Research Center for Geosciences GFZ, Germany), and Michael Brown (University of Maryland, USA), applied what they know about modern plate tectonics to the evolution of tectonic activity in Earth’s past. The researchers identified two major glaciation events that triggered increased tectonic activity in Earth’s history: one that led to the supercontinent Columbia and a second that likely caused the stable plate tectonics that we see on Earth today. Read more...
New Mineral Classification System Captures Earth’s Complex Past
The first minerals to form in the universe were nanocrystalline diamonds, which condensed from gases ejected when the first generation of stars exploded. Diamonds that crystallize under the extreme pressure and temperature conditions deep inside of Earth are more typically encountered by humanity. What opportunities for knowledge are lost when mineralogists categorize both the cosmic travelers and the denizens of deep Earth as being simply “diamond”? Could a new classification system that accounts for minerals’ distinct journeys help us better understand mineralogy as a process of universal and planetary evolution? The current system for classifying minerals—developed by James Dwight Dana in the 1850s—categorizes more than 5400 mineral “species” based on their dominant chemical compositions and crystalline structures. This is an unambiguous, robust, and reproducible designation scheme. DCO Executive Director Robert Hazen (Carnegie Institution for Science, USA) suggests an additional classification system, which could amplify existing knowledge of how minerals evolve over time without superseding the existing designations. In American Mineralogist’s Roebling Medal Paper, Hazen argues for categories that reflect a deeper, more-modern understanding of planetary scale transformation over time. Read more...
The Archaea Are Winning in Deep-Sea, Oxic Subsurface Sediments
Archaea and bacteria may look very similar under the microscope, but organisms from these two different domains of life have important physiological differences that affect where and how they live. We know much more about bacteria living on the surface world, compared to archaea, but a new study finds that in deep, oxic marine sediments, a type of archaea belonging to the Thaumarchaea dominate. In these oxygen-containing layers of muck, with little food or energy, they have outnumbered bacteria for millions of years. In a new paper in Science Advances, Aurèle Vuillemin and William Orsi (both at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Germany) with DCO Deep Life Community members Emily Estes (University of Delaware, USA), Robert Pockalny, and Steven D’Hondt (both at University of Rhode Island, USA), and additional colleagues, report that Thaumarchaea outcompete bacteria in oxic sediments, likely by using a clever metabolic trick. The researchers studied the abundance and diversity of microbes in sediments below the North Atlantic Ocean. They discovered that Thaumarchaea survive for so long by being highly efficient and by wringing more energy from the bits of dead cells that they consume, compared to bacteria. Their findings show that Thaumarchaea play important roles in cycling carbon and nitrogen in this especially large, deep ecosystem. Read more...
Volcanic Crystals Record Quick Trip from Mantle to Surface
Everyone living on or around a volcano would appreciate an early warning system, but thus far, volcanic eruptions have been notoriously difficult to predict. One possible warning sign is earthquakes, which indicate when melted rock, called magma, moves into the crust. Another potential signal is a spike in gas emissions, when carbon dioxide comes out of the ascending magma. Knowing how long it takes for the magma to navigate a volcano’s plumbing system and erupt also would be useful for volcano eruption forecasting. Scientists, however, have struggled to make these measurements. Now for the first time, DCO Reservoirs and Fluxes Community members Euan Mutch, John Maclennan, and Marie Edmonds (all at University of Cambridge, UK) with colleagues have estimated how long it takes for magma to move from the base of the crust to the surface before a volcanic eruption. In a new paper in Nature Geoscience, they estimate that magma in the Borgarhraun eruption that occurred in northern Iceland about 8000 years ago ascended 24 kilometers in about 10 days. They made this estimate by examining volcanic rocks from the eruption and seeing how crystals in the magma changed during the trip to the surface. Similar estimates at other volcanoes could help us understand the movement and storage of carbon in the subsurface and may help refine eruption forecasting in concert with monitoring of earthquakes and gas emissions. Read more...
New Book Sings Carbon’s Praises
From the walls of our cells, to the gases in our atmosphere, the diamonds in jewelry and the materials that feed civilization’s growth, carbon permeates every aspect of our lives. A new book by DCO Executive Director Robert Hazen (Carnegie Institution for Science, USA), celebrates carbon in all its forms, entitled, Symphony in C: Carbon and the Evolution of (Almost) Everything. The book provides a tour through almost 14 billion years of the history of the universe, from the birth of carbon inside stars, to the evolution of life, and the modern-day climate crisis. As he explores carbon’s history, Hazen tells stories about the people who made vital discoveries, and what we still have left to learn. Read more...
Carbon Mineral Challenge Adds 30 New Carbon Minerals
The Carbon Mineral Challenge will officially end in September 2019, but this first-of-its-kind worldwide collaboration to identify new carbon minerals has seen an impressive haul. Since its launch in 2015, researchers and mineral collectors have identified 30 new carbon-containing minerals. This is a stunning accomplishment, and yet the diversity of new minerals discovered suggests that many more remain to be found. DCO Extreme Physics and Chemistry Community member Daniel Hummer (Southern Illinois University, USA) sums up the accomplishments of the Carbon Mineral Challenge in a new paper in the Australian Journal of Mineralogy. The DCO-sponsored initiative brought together scientists, industry geologists, museum staff, and amateur mineral collectors in a targeted search to identify new carbon minerals. The variety of the finds highlights the incredible diversity of forms that carbon minerals can take, and also shows the utility of using our knowledge of existing minerals to direct the search for the unknown. Read more...
Carbon Degassing Special Theme Issue Covers New Ground
In 2017, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems invited scientists to submit papers related to the theme, "Carbon Degassing Through Volcanoes and Active Tectonic Regions," proposed by DCO’s DECADE initiative. The diverse compilation covers degassing from a range of volcanic regions and also highlights interdisciplinary approaches and new technologies within the field. DCO Reservoirs and Fluxes Community members Tobias Fischer (University of New Mexico, USA), Alessandro Aiuppa (Università degli studi di Palermo, Italy), and Marie Edmonds (University of Cambridge, UK), edited the collection. Read more...
'Deep Matter and Energy' Special Issue Highlights Role of Deep Volatiles
A new open-access special issue on Deep Matter and Energy contains sixteen papers that span all four DCO Science Communities. Edited by Ho-Kwang Mao (Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research (HPSTAR), China) and Chengwei Sun (China Academy of Engineering Physics, China), this special issue of Engineering “focuses on the science and technology of deep volatiles, which span the multidisciplinary boundaries of mineralogy, geophysics, geochemistry, biology, and fundamental physics and chemistry at depths ranging from the deep ocean to the Earth’s core, under the common theme of the high-pressure dimension.” It contains papers presented at the Deep Volatiles, Energy, and Environments Summit, which was co-sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Engineering and DCO on 13–14 March 2018 at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Shanghai, China. The summit, organized by HPSTAR and DCO, brought together about 170 scientists from nine nations. Read more...
VIDEO: Karen Lloyd Delivers TED Talk on the Distribution and Role of Deep Subsurface Microbes
Microbiologist Karen Lloyd (DCO Executive Committee, University of Tennessee Knoxville, USA) takes us on a trip to the volcanoes and hot springs of Costa Rica, shining a light on subterranean organisms and how they could have a profound impact on life at Earth's surface. Lloyd studies novel groups of microbes in Earth's deep surface biosphere, collecting them from disparate remote places such as Arctic fjords, volcanoes in Costa Rica, even deep in mud in the Marianas Trench. She has adapted novel techniques to quantify and characterize these mysterious microbes, with minimal disruption to natural conditions. Her work centers on deep oceanic subsurface sediments, deep-sea mud volcanoes and cold seeps, terrestrial volcanoes and hot springs, serpentinizing springs, Arctic marine fjord sediments, and ancient permafrost. This talk was presented in April at TED2019 in Vancouver, Canada. Watch now...
Unraveling the ENIGMA of Protein Evolution
Proteins are finely tuned, specialized “nanomachines” that catalyze necessary chemical reactions in all organisms on Earth. Though scientists don’t yet understand how these efficient machines first began, they likely had humble beginnings amidst geochemical reactions, and evolved into ever more complex configurations. Those humble beginnings are the focus of a new project entitled ENIGMA, Evolution of Nanomachines in Geospheres and Microbial Ancestors. Researchers involved with the project seek to understand how proteins originated and evolved through deep time, and whether similar instances of biochemistry emerging from geochemistry could have occurred on other planetary bodies. They have received a five-year, $6 million-grant from NASA and membership in the NASA Astrobiology Institute. Paul Falkowski (Rutgers University, USA) leads the project, which includes DCO members Robert Hazen, Shaunna Morrison, Joy Buongiorno (all at Carnegie Institution for Science, USA), and Donato Giovannelli (University of Naples Federico II, Italy). Read more...
Big Ideas About Materials of the Universe
The Materials of the Universe Workshop brought together 55 experts from astrophysics, planetary science, physics, chemistry, biology, materials science, and engineering at Arizona State University in Tempe, USA from 24-26 April 2019. The aim was to define grand questions and challenges in the combined fields of materials research and planetary science for the coming decade. Participants sought to reveal new and unanticipated questions about the constitution of the universe, which can best be answered by the collective knowledge and imagination of astrophysicists and exoplanetary scientists, geochemists and materials scientists, quantum mechanical and macroscale theorists, and large-scale mission planners and project engineers. The Deep Carbon Observatory and Arizona State University co-sponsored the workshop, which engaged a strong contingent of DCO members. Read more...
Deep Carbon Science at the 2019 Goldschmidt Conference
A large contingent of DCO researchers will participate in Goldschmidt 2019 on 18–23 August 2019 in Barcelona, Spain. This page lists the sessions of interest to DCO attendees at the meeting. To add additional items, please contact the DCO Engagement Team. Read more...
AGU 2019 Fall Meeting Sessions of Interest to the DCO Community
The 2019 AGU Fall Meeting will return to its home base at the Moscone Center in San Francisco, CA, USA, 9-13 December 2019. With almost 24000 Earth and space scientists attending last year, AGU’s Fall Meeting is the largest of its kind in the world. Visit the meeting website. Note: This listing provides examples of sessions to which DCO scientists might wish to submit abstracts. The full program is available here. To add additional sessions to this listing, please contact the DCO Engagement Team. Abstract submission deadline is 31 July 2019. Read more...
Cite for Sore Eyes: Filling the Deep Carbon Science Blanks on Wikipedia
Wikipedia contains 1.5 million citations and drives more traffic to online scholarly articles than all but five other websites. As a result, Wikipedia is a place where deep carbon scientists can reach a vast audience of scientists and non-scientists alike. Wikipedia is what it is because of an involved community of editors; people like you who care about sharing accurate and up-to-date information. Have you noticed Wikipedia is lacking depth about subjects in your field? Or a subject is explained in a slightly inaccurate or misleading way? Then now is the time to put things right. Read more...
Submit Your Story to the Deep Carbon Observatory Story Collider
Stories are powerful. Whether hilarious or heartbreaking, subversive or soothing, they reflect who we are and what matters to us. As a community, it deeply matters who takes the stage and what stories are told. We want to hear yours! On 24 October 2019, The Story Collider will host a very special edition of their live show for the Deep Carbon Observatory. This show is happening in conjunction with Deep Carbon 2019, the fourth DCO Science Meeting, in Washington, DC, USA. We are searching for five people to share their true, personal experiences on the theme of “a life in science.” You can also join us on 10 July 2019 at 2pm EST for a webinar with Story Collider Executive Director Liz Neeley. Read more...
DEADLINE EXTENDED: 2019 DCO Emerging Leader Awards Call for Nominations
The Deep Carbon Observatory invites all members of the DCO community to submit nominations for the 2019 DCO Emerging Leader Awards. These awards, which have been bestowed annually since 2015, honor DCO early career scientists for distinguished performance and unique potential as leaders of the deep carbon science community. Award recipients will receive a certificate and a slab of carbonated Oman ophiolite in a beautiful display box, and will be highlighted on the DCO website. Nomination deadline: 15 July 2019. Read more...
DCO Webinar Wednesdays: Telling your science story with The Story Collider, 2pm EDT, 10 July 2019
In this webinar, Story Collider Executive Director Liz Neeley will explain how to pitch, what The Story Collider shows involve, and answer any questions you might have about submitting your story for the DCO Story Collider show in October.
Goldschmidt 2019, Barcelona, Spain, 18-23 August 2019
Goldschmidt is the foremost annual, international conference on geochemistry and related subjects, organized by the European Association of Geochemistry and the Geochemical Society. View DCO talks and posters here. Online registration deadline: 18 July 2019
YES Congress 2019, Berlin, Germany, 9-13 September 2019
The YES (Young Earth Scientists) Network is an international association of young and early career Earth scientists. The Congress focuses on climate, environmental, and geoscience challenges facing today’s society, as well as career and academic pathway challenges faced by early career geoscientists.
2019 GSA Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ, USA, 22-25 September 2019
The annual meeting of the Geological Society of America will take place in Phoenix, Arizona, and includes opportunities for local field experiences.
Fourth Microbial Single Cell Genomics Workshop, Single Cell Genomics Center, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, Boothbay Harbor, ME, USA, 22-26 September 2019
This workshop will explore microbial single cell genomics and related areas, such as bioinformatics, single cell RNA-sequencing of multicellular organisms, single cell physiology, probing, and imaging.
Fifth International Training School on Convective and Volcanic Clouds: Detection, Monitoring, and Modeling, Nicolosi, Italy, 2-10 October 2019
The purpose of the school is to train students in techniques for the detection, monitoring, and modeling of convective and volcanic clouds, state-of-the-art instruments and satellite missions, and the type of studies needed for supporting policymakers, early warning systems, and aviation safety. Registration deadline: 10 August 2019
Deep Carbon 2019: Launching the next decade of deep carbon science, Washington, DC, USA, 24-26 October 2019
Deep Carbon 2019 will highlight DCO’s many scientific advances, representing the culmination of ten years of deep carbon research, exploration, and discovery.
The Story Collider, Special DCO Edition, Washington, DC, USA, 24 October 2019
The Story Collider will host a very special edition of their live show for the Deep Carbon Observatory in conjunction with Deep Carbon 2019: Launching the Next Decade of Deep Carbon Science.
2019 AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA, USA, 9-13 December 2019
As the American Geophysical Union marks its centennial in 2019, the Fall Meeting returns to San Francisco, the home of the Fall Meeting for more than 40 years. View DCO sessions of interest here. Abstract submission deadline: 31 July 2019
Deep Life Cultivation Internship Program
DCO's Deep Life Community (DLC) realizes that the majority of deep microbial life has been resistant to cultivation in the laboratory, which complicates the characterization of physiological characteristics of deep community members. However, recent studies using bioreactor-cultivation techniques, under high pressure and/or temperature, have resulted in successful enrichment of previously uncultivable archaeal and bacterial components that mediate biogeochemical carbon cycling in the deep subsurface. To maintain and strengthen cultivation strategies in future deep life missions, the DLC will support early career researchers to visit some key laboratories (Inagaki - Kochi, Japan, Bartlett - La Jolla, USA, and others) to learn and practice newly developed cultivation and cultivation-dependent molecular/biogeochemical techniques, using samples from the DLC’s field missions.
C-DEBI: Rolling Call for Research Exchange Proposals
The Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) facilitates scientific coordination and collaborations by supporting student, postdoctoral, and faculty exchanges to build, educate, and train the deep subseafloor biosphere community. We award small research exchange grants for Center participants. These grants may be used to support research, travel for presenting C-DEBI research at meetings, or travel exchanges to other partner institutions or institutions that have new tools and techniques that can be applied to C-DEBI research. We anticipate ~10 awards of $500-5,000 with additional matched funds to be granted annually.
View more employment opportunities on the DCO website.
Professorship of Mineralogy and Petrology - University of Cambridge, UK
The Board of Electors to the Professorship of Mineralogy and Petrology invite applications from persons, whose work is connected with relevant aspects of the Earth Sciences, to take up appointment in the academic year 2019/20 or as soon as possible thereafter. Application deadline: 30 July 2019
Professorship of Geophysics - University of Cambridge, UK
The Board of Electors to the Professorship of Geophysics invite applications from persons, whose work is connected with relevant aspects of the Earth Sciences, to take up an appointment in the academic year 2019/20 or as soon as possible thereafter. Application deadline: 30 July 2019
Laboratory Technician in High P-T Science - Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution for Science, USA
The Geophysical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington seeks a highly-qualified applicant for a Laboratory Technician position with expertise in high pressure-temperature science. Application deadline: 31 July 2019
Department Head & Professor of Geophysics - Colorado School of Mines, USA
The Department of Geophysics at the Colorado School of Mines (Mines) invites applications for a tenured, full professor to head the Department. Applicants must have a Ph.D. in Geophysics or a related field, and a proven track record in research and service. Application deadline: 1 August 2019
Assistant or Associate Professor in Solid Earth Geophysics - University of Texas Austin, USA
The Department of Geological Sciences in the Jackson School of Geosciences at The University of Texas at Austin seeks to hire a faculty member in the field of solid Earth geophysics at the Assistant (tenure-track) or Associate Professor (tenured) level. We are looking for an outstanding scientist who will establish an innovative, externally-funded research program and will be committed to both teaching and mentoring at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Application deadline: 1 September 2019
Postdoctoral Researcher in Aqueous Geochemistry/Hydrothermal Systems - University of Minnesota, USA
The Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities seeks applicants for a post-doctoral position involving experimental and theoretical studies of mineral-fluid reactions in hydrological and hydrothermal systems. Application deadline: 1 September 2019
PhD position for the IMPACT ERC project - CNRS, Lyon, France
The position is to study the behavior of major rock-forming minerals during the Giant Impact. The aim of the doctoral work is to determine the physical properties and the chemical behavior of the corresponding mineral melts at conditions characteristic to the Giant Impact. For this, the successful candidate will use ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations. Open until filled.
Postdoctoral position in the IMPACT ERC project - CNRS, Lyon, France
The position is to study the supercritical state and the liquid – vapor equilibria of a variety of multicomponent silicate and oxide systems using large-scale ab initio simulations. The successful candidate will explore the role particular volatile systems play in the chemical equilibria of complex natural systems, their behavior in the magma ocean, and possible escape pathways. Open until filled.
DCO in the News
27 June 2019 Louise H. Kellogg (1959–2019)
By Barbara Romanowicz and Magali Billen for Eos
With the premature death of Louise Kellogg, the geoscience community lost a thoughtful and influential leader...
19 June 2019 Customized DJI M210 drone ‘world’s best’ for volcano gas inspections
A DJI M210 drone, supplied by Heliguy and equipped with a custom payload, has been described as the best system on the planet for carrying out short-range gas inspections of volcanoes...
19 June 2019 Marine microbiology - Successful extremists
In nutrient-poor deep-sea sediments, microbes belonging to the Archaea have outcompeted bacterial microorganisms for millions of years...
13 June 2019 Interview with Tamsin Mather
By Anna McKie for Times Higher Education
The volcanologist discusses the joys of fieldwork, the fight for equality, and how her son’s battle with leukaemia transformed her outlook on life...
12 June 2019 Book review: ‘Symphony in C’ by Robert Hazen
By Nick Smith for Engineering and Technology Magazine
The world of music provides this wide ranging review of carbon, an element we all take for granted, with a perfect metaphor...
12 June 2019 An ode to carbon
By Ted Nield for Nature
As Robert Hazen tells us more than once in Symphony in C, most of Earth’s carbon is inside the planet...
11 June 2019 Microbes may act as gatekeepers of Earth’s deep carbon
Two years ago, a team of scientists, including Michigan State University geomicrobiologist Matt Schrenk, visited Costa Rica’s subduction zone, where the ocean floor sinks beneath the continent and volcanoes tower above the surface...
10 June 2019 Carbon plays a starring role in the new book ‘Symphony in C’
By Sid Perkins for Science News
Carbon is by no means the most abundant element in the cosmos, but it is undoubtedly the most important to life as we know it...
6 June 2019 New Mineral Classification System Proposed
The modern mineral classification system, developed by the American geologist and mineralogist James Dwight Dana in the 1850s, categorizes more than 5,400 mineral species based on their dominant chemical compositions and crystalline structures...
3 June 2019 New mineral classification system captures Earth's complex past
A system of categorization that reflects not just a mineral's chemistry and crystalline structure, but also the physical, chemical, or biological processes by which it formed, would be capable of recognizing that nanodiamonds from space are fundamentally different to diamonds formed in Earth's depths...
Learn more about DCO's Scientific Communities
Extreme Physics and Chemistry
The Extreme Physics and Chemistry Community is dedicated to improving our understanding of the physical and chemical behavior of carbon at extreme conditions, as found in the deep interiors of Earth and other planets.
Reservoirs and Fluxes
The Reservoirs and Fluxes Community is dedicated to identifying the principal deep carbon reservoirs, to determining the mechanisms and rates by which carbon moves among these reservoirs, and to assessing the total carbon budget of Earth.
The Deep Energy Community is dedicated to developing a fundamental understanding of environments and processes that regulate the volume and rates of production of abiogenic hydrocarbons and other organic species in the crust and mantle through geological time.
The Deep Life Community is dedicated to assessing the nature and extent of the deep microbial and viral biosphere by exploring the evolutionary and functional diversity of Earth's deep biosphere and its interaction with the carbon cycle.
Thanks for reading! Send us items for future newsletters by emailing Katie Pratt of the DCO Engagement Team.