October 2018 Newsletter

From the Deep, a monthly newsletter from DCO
October 2018
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Deep Carbon Observatory
Emma Liu and Kieran Wood on Rabaul Volcano
Emma Liu (left; University of Cambridge, UK) and Kieran Wood (University of Bristol, UK) with a multi-rotor drone on Rabaul Volcano. Liu, Wood, and colleagues are currently in Papua New Guinea as part of the newly funded DCO project “Aerial Observations of Volcanic Emissions from Unmanned Aerial Systems.” Image courtesy of Emma Liu. Follow the team’s progress here.

Letter from the Director

Deep life and methane dominate this month’s DCO news. A new paper about IODP Expedition 357: Atlantis Massif Serpentinization and Life, led by Gretchen Früh-Green (ETH Zurich, Switzerland) and Beth Orcutt (Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, USA), documents magmatic, tectonic, and alteration processes of an oceanic core complex that is actively undergoing serpentinization and has the potential to sustain a unique subsurface biosphere.

By studying a mud volcano on the seafloor north of Norway, Emil Ruff (University of Calgary, Canada), Antje Boetius (Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Germany), and colleagues investigated the formation of a “microbial methane filter," a layer of cells that efficiently consumes methane escaping from sediments before it reaches the water column and reduces greenhouse gas emissions from the seafloor.

A comprehensive analysis of a global dataset of 20621 samples of natural gas by Giuseppe Etiope (INGV, Italy) and Alexei Milkov (Colorado School of Mines, USA) appears in Organic Geochemistry. The researchers updated genetic diagrams that are commonly used to interpret the origins of hydrocarbon gases. In addition to these empirical diagrams, DCO is developing novel approaches for determining the origins of natural gas based on methane clumped isotopes

Also in the news this month, Edward Young (UCLA, USA) is featured in a recent episode of the Science Channel’s documentary series “Space’s Deepest Secrets.” The episode, “Dark Origins of the Moon,” demonstrates how data from the Panorama mass spectrometer place new constraints on the formation of Earth’s moon.

On the programmatic side, DCO is delighted to announce three grants awarded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation to support DCO activities through the end of the decadal program on 31 December 2019. DCO is immensely grateful for the Sloan Foundation’s generous support of deep carbon science since 2009.

And as November approaches, please consider the following opportunities: 1 November 2018 is the deadline for submitting session proposals to Goldschmidt 2019, which will take place in Barcelona, Spain from 18-23 August 2019; 7 November 2018 is the deadline for early career scientists to apply for a DCO bursary to support their participation in the Volcanic and Magmatic Studies Group Meeting in St Andrews from 8-10 January 2019.

Finally, I would like to call your attention to intrepid DCO scientists who have been conducting exciting expeditions around the world, including Discovering the Carpathian Volcanism, a Deep-Sea Oceanographic Expedition to the Lost City Hydrothermal Field, and Expedition Papua New Guinea.

Craig Schiffries, DCO Director
Carnegie Institution for Science, Geophysical Laboratory
Washington DC, USA

News Features

The Seafloor “Methane Filter” Takes Years to Regrow After Disruption
Each year, about 200 million tons of methane leak out from sediments and cold seeps along the seafloor, but that number could be far higher. Fortunately, up to 90 percent of this greenhouse gas never reaches the surface, thanks to a buried carpet of microbes that consume the methane to generate energy. A new, long-term study of a mud volcano eruption finds that this “microbial methane filter" can take years to re-form after a disturbance. DCO Deep Life Community members Emil Ruff (University of Calgary, Canada) and Antje Boetius (Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Germany) used the eruption of a mud volcano to investigate how methane-consuming microbes colonize new mud flows. In a new paper in The ISME Journal, they describe the different waves of bacteria that inhabited mud flows, aged from zero to more than five years. Now that they have established a rough timeline for the re-formation of the methane filter, the findings can be used to estimate methane release from seafloor disturbances such as deep-sea mining. Read more...

Subsurface Life in the Atlantis Massif: Just Add Water?
When mantle rocks come into contact with seawater, the resulting reaction, called serpentinization, transforms the rock and generates methane, hydrogen, and small organic molecules. These organic compounds should be a buffet for microbes, but serpentinization fluids also are highly alkaline and lack oxygen, metals, and other molecules that microbes use to “breath.” The details of how microbial communities colonize these challenging environments are still unknown. To better understand the geological processes leading to serpentinization and how microbes survive in these systems, DCO members Gretchen Früh-Green (ETH-Zurich, Switzerland) and Beth Orcutt (Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, USA) led International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 357 in late 2015. An international team of researchers drilled holes across an actively serpentinizing site in the North Atlantic Ocean called the Atlantis Massif. This dome of mantle material ascended from about four kilometers deep, through a fault zone in the seafloor. The researchers describe the expedition in a new paper in Lithos. Read more... 

Natural Gas Diagrams Get a Makeover
Methane in the subsurface can come from three sources: microbes, the high-temperature breakdown of organic matter, which yields thermogenic methane, or abiotic chemical processes that are independent of life. For decades, scientists have distinguished between these three “genetic fields” based on a gas sample’s isotopic composition, and the relative amounts of methane, ethane, and propane it contains. In the 1970s and 1980s, gas geochemists used these characteristics to create handy diagrams to determine the origin of gas samples, but these tools were in need of an update. The original diagrams were based on the very small number of gas samples available at the time – sometimes just tens or hundreds of measurements for each field – and leave out thousands of recent natural gas measurements. DCO Deep Energy Community member Giuseppe Etiope (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Italy) worked with Alexei Milkov (Colorado School of Mines, USA) to update these diagrams to include measurements from more than 20000 gas samples. The new diagrams more closely reflect the full range of natural gas sample composition and also take into account not just conventional petroleum reserves, but other methane sources such as coal beds, freshwater sediments, and surface seeps, from around the world. The researchers published the revised diagrams in a new paper in Organic Geochemistry. Read more...

The Science Channel Investigates the “Dark Origins of the Moon” with DCO Scientist and Instrumentation
A recent episode of the Science Channel’s documentary series “Space’s Deepest Secrets” explores the formation of Earth’s moon. Titled “Dark Origins of the Moon,” the program opened the fifth season of the show in the US on 15 October 2018, and featured DCO Deep Energy co-Chair Edward Young (University of California Los Angeles, USA). The documentary also stars the Panorama mass spectrometer, the largest and highest resolution mass spectrometer of its kind in the world, which was developed with funding from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation/Deep Carbon Observatory, the US National Science Foundation, the U. Department of Energy, Shell Oil Company, the Carnegie Institution for Science, and the University of California Los Angeles. Read more...

To the Finish Line: Sloan Foundation Awards Grants to DCO through 2019
The Alfred P. Sloan Foundation approved three grants in October 2018 that support DCO activities through the end of the decadal program on 31 December 2019. DCO is immensely grateful to the Sloan Foundation for its generous support since 2009. The Sloan Foundation awarded a final grant to support three of the four communities – Reservoirs and Fluxes, Deep Energy, and Extreme Physics and Chemistry – through the end of December 2019. (Due to staggered grant dates, the fourth community, Deep Life, already received funding through 2019.) The Sloan Foundation’s final grant to DCO’s Data Science Team at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute will support the completion of DCO Data Science decadal activities. And to explore the full potential of measuring volcanic gas emissions via unmanned aerial vehicles – or drones – the Sloan Foundation approved a grant supporting a drone-based investigation of volcanoes in Papua New Guinea. Read more...

Updates from the Field: Expedition Papua New Guinea
The newly funded “Aerial Observations of Volcanic Emissions from Unmanned Aerial Systems” field study, also known as Expedition PNG or #DCOdronesPNG on Twitter, got off to a flying start on Monday, 21 October 2018. Led by Emma Liu of the University of Cambridge, UK, expedition participants are using innovative unmanned aerial system technologies (or drones) to collect volcanic gas measurements at Manam and Rabaul Volcanoes in Papua New Guinea. These strongly degassing volcanoes remain largely uncharacterized because their plumes are challenging to access using ground-based techniques. The team will be in the field through the end of October, returning for three more weeks in the spring of 2019. Follow the team’s progress on the DCO Twitter account (@deepcarb), or read more here...

Field Report: Investigating the Origins of Carbon Degassing in Romania
On 3 September 2018, seven researchers from four countries set off from Cluj-Napoca, Romania for a 10-day sampling expedition across the Eastern Carpathian Neogenic Volcanic belt. Early career scientists primarily made up the team, which included members from three of the Deep Carbon Observatory’s Science Communities: Reservoirs and Fluxes, Extreme Physics and Chemistry, and Deep Energy. The goal of the expedition, entitled “Discovering the Carpathian Volcanism,” was to collect samples to answer key questions related to carbon degassing and the origins of fluids in the region, the evolutionary stages of different gases relative to the age of volcanic bodies, and water-rock interactions. Read more...

DCO at the 2018 AGU Fall Meeting
We expect another large contingent of DCO researchers at the AGU Fall Meeting on 10–14 December 2018 in Washington, DC, USA. This day-by-day guide lists sessions involving DCO scientists and others of potential topical interest to DCO attendees. To add additional sessions or presentations to this listing, please contact Katie Pratt of the DCO Engagement Team. Read more...

Upcoming Events

GSA Annual Meeting, Indianapolis IN, USA, 4-7 November 2018
The annual meeting of the Geological Society of America will highlight the Indiana area geology, as well as the wider world of geoscience research. 

International Continental Drilling Program Training Course on Continental Scientific Drilling, Windischeschenbach, Germany, 18-23 November 2018
This training course will touch upon all relevant aspects of continental scientific drilling, including project planning and management, pre-site surveys, drilling engineering, sample handling and storage, on-site studies, downhole logging and monitoring, data management, and post-drilling measures. 

Serpentinite in the Earth System Discussion Meeting, The Royal Society, London, UK, 19-20 November 2018
This meeting will bring together international scientists working on all aspects of serpentinization, a process that may have been important for the origin of life on Earth and perhaps other planets. 

AGU Fall Meeting, Washington DC, USA, 10-14 December 2018
The American Geophysical Union’s Fall Meeting is the largest Earth and space science meeting in the world. This day-by-day guide lists sessions involving DCO scientists and others of potential topical interest to DCO attendees.

Volcanic and Magmatic Studies Group 2019, University of St Andrews, UK, 8-10 January 2019
This meeting is open to everyone working on volcanic and magmatic geoscience. General themes include eruption processes, subvolcanic processes, monitoring across scales, isotope and trace element geochemistry, ore deposit-formation and exploration, extraterrestrial volcanism and magmatism, and tracking carbon and other volatiles from the mantle to the atmosphere. DCO early career scientist bursary application deadline: 7 November 2018 Registration and abstract submission deadline: 16 November 2018

Janet Watson Meeting 2019: From Core to Atmosphere: Deep Carbon, Geological Society of London, UK, 26-28 February 2019
This three-day meeting will bring together early career geoscientists and senior members of the Deep Carbon research community. Abstract submission deadline: 14 December 2018

Industry-Rice Earth Science Symposia 2019: Minerals and Energy: Science, Economics and Policy, Rice University, USA, 21-22 March 2019
The purpose of this symposium is to break down the barriers between scientists, policy makers, industry leaders and business entrepreneurs to collectively generate a deeper understanding of our planet’s natural resources. 

European Geosciences Union General Assembly, Vienna Austria 7-12 April 2019
The EGU General Assembly 2019 will bring together geoscientists from all over the world to one meeting covering all disciplines of the Earth, planetary and space sciences. Abstract submission deadline: 10 January 2019

Goldschmidt 2019, Barcelona, Spain, 18-23 August 2019
Goldschmidt is the foremost annual, international conference on geochemistry and related subjects, organized by the European Association of Geochemistry and the Geochemical Society. Session proposal deadline: 1 November 2018

Honors and Awards

Elizabeth Trembath-Reichert, Deep Life
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA 
L’Oréal USA 2018 For Women in Science Fellowship 

Nikolay Sobolev, DCO Executive Committee
Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia
Member of the National Academy of Sciences in Italy 

Funding Opportunities

Schlanger Ocean Drilling Fellowship Program
The Schlanger Ocean Drilling Fellowship Program offers merit-based awards for outstanding graduate students to conduct research related to the International Ocean Discovery Program. The Fellowship year begins in either June or August (summer or fall semester). During the following summer, at the conclusion of the fellowship, Schlanger Fellows may attend a meeting of the U.S. Advisory Committee for Scientific Ocean Drilling to present the initial results of their research and take part in U.S. Science Support Program-related activities. Application deadline: 7 December 2018

Deep Life Cultivation Internship Program
DCO's Deep Life Community (DLC) realizes that the majority of deep microbial life has been resistant to cultivation in the laboratory, which complicates the characterization of physiological characteristics of deep community members. However, recent studies using bioreactor-cultivation techniques, under high pressure and/or temperature, have resulted in successful enrichment of previously uncultivable archaeal and bacterial components that mediate biogeochemical carbon cycling in the deep subsurface. To maintain and strengthen cultivation strategies in future deep life missions, the DLC will support early career researchers to visit some key laboratories (Inagaki - Kochi, Japan, Bartlett - La Jolla, USA, and others) to learn and practice newly developed cultivation and cultivation-dependent molecular/biogeochemical techniques, using samples from the DLC’s field missions.

C-DEBI: Rolling Call for Research Exchange Proposals
The Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) facilitates scientific coordination and collaborations by supporting student, postdoctoral, and faculty exchanges to build, educate, and train the deep subseafloor biosphere community. We award small research exchange grants for Center participants. These grants may be used to support research, travel for presenting C-DEBI research at meetings, or travel exchanges to other partner institutions or institutions that have new tools and techniques that can be applied to C-DEBI research. We anticipate ~10 awards of $500-5,000 with additional matched funds to be granted annually. 

New Publications

View more papers in the DCO publications browser.

In situ development of a methanotrophic microbiome in deep-sea sediments
S. Emil Ruff, Janine Felden, Har­ald R. Gruber-Vodicka, Yann Marcon, Katrin Knittel, Alban Ramette, and Antje Boetius 
The ISME Journal doi:10.1038/s41396-018-0263-1

Magmatism, serpentinization and life: Insights through drilling the Atlantis Massif (IODP Expedition 357) 
Gretchen L. Früh-Green, Beth N. Orcutt, Stéphane Rouméjon, Marvin D.Lilley, Yuki Morono, Carol Cotterill, Sophie Green, Javier Escartin, Barbara E. John, Andrew M. McCaig, Mathilde Cannat, Bénédicte Ménez, Esther M. Schwarzenbach, Morgan J. Williams, Sally Morgan, Susan Q. Lang, Matthew O. Schrenk, William J. Brazelton, Norikatsu Akizawao, Chiara Boschi, Kristina G. Dunkel, Marianne Quéméneur, Scott A. Whattam, Lisa Mayhew, Michelle Harris, Gaye Bayrakci, Jan-Hinrich Behrmann, Emilio Herrero-Bervera, Kirsten Hesse, Hai-Quan Liu, Amila Sandaruwan Ratnayake, Katrina Twing, Dominique Weis, Rui Zhao, and Laura Bilenker
Lithos doi:10.1016/j.lithos.2018.09.012 

Revised genetic diagrams for natural gases based on a global dataset of >20,000 samples 
Alexei V. Milkov and Giuseppe Etiope
Organic Geochemistry doi:10.1016/j.orggeochem.2018.09.002

Publication Opportunities

Call for Papers to Contribute to Deep Carbon Science Research Topic
A new research topic in the journal Frontiers will share new insights in deep carbon science from across the DCO Science Network. It will feature papers from all of DCO’s science communities (Extreme Physics and Chemistry, Reservoirs and Fluxes, Deep Energy, and Deep Life) and the Modeling and Visualization and Data Science groups. The editors, Isabelle Danielle (Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, France), Sabin Zahirovic (University of Sydney, Australia), Dan Bower (Universität Bern, Switzerland), Artur Ionescu (Babes-Bolyai University, Romania), Mattia Pistone (Université de Lausanne, Switzerland), Sami Mikhail (University of St Andrews, UK), and Dawn Cardace (University of Rhode Island, USA) invite all DCO scientists and their colleagues to contribute. Abstract submission deadline: 30 November 2018 Read more...

Invitation to Contribute to Fluid-Mineral Interactions Special Issue
A new special issue of Minerals will explore advances in the understanding of fluid-rock inteactions. Edited by DCO’s Alberto Vitale Brovarone (Intitut de Minéralogie, de Pysique des Matériaux et de Cosmochimie, IMPMC, CNRS, France) and Simone Tumiati (Università degli studi di Milano, Italy), the thematic issue aims at exploring fluid-mineral processes from different angles, from natural observations, to experimental and theoretical studies and their implications on reactivity and transformations at lithospheric conditions. Contributions related to the study of deep carbon are especially welcome. All members of the DCO Science Network are invited to submit articles. The submission period will run through the end of 2018. Read more...

Employment Opportunities

View more employment opportunities on the DCO website.

Assistant Professor in Earth Sciences (two posts) - Durham University, UK
Earth Sciences at Durham University is a UK top five and global top 30 department, with 35 academic staff, 30 research staff, 90 PhD students and 300 undergraduate students. We wish to appoint two collaborative, intellectually curious, and inclusive colleagues as Assistant Professors, with research and teaching interests in any area of Earth Science that complement the department’s existing expertise. Your research may innovate new research themes or contribute to existing themes in the Department and across the University. Application deadline: 15 November 2018

Postdoctoral Research Fellowships - American Museum of Natural History
The Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at the American Museum of Natural History invites applications to carry out projects in collaboration with curatorial staff. Fields of research include mineralogy, marine geochemistry, and meteoritics/planetary sciences. Appointments are for six months to two years beginning September 2019. Application deadline: 15 November 2018

Faculty position in Geochemistry - Cornell University, USA
The Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences at Cornell University invites Early Career Scientists to apply for an open faculty appointment in geochemistry. We seek candidates who will complement the existing strengths of the department. We encourage candidates who combine field, analytical, experimental, and/or modeling approaches to solve geologic problems. Application deadline: 15 November 2018

Two Postdoctoral Researcher Positions in Active-Source Seismology - JAMSTEC, Yokohama, Japan
The Structural Seismology Group in Center for Earthquake and Tsunami, JAMSTEC invites applications for two Postdoctoral Researcher positions working for a research project entitled “Subduction Zone Observation and Monitoring for Hazard Mitigation.” This project is an integrated seismogenic zone research project through seismic surveys, seafloor observations, and monitoring earthquakes and tsunamis. Application deadline: 15 November 2018

2019 Exploration Fellowship in Earth and Space Science - Arizona State University, USA
The School of Earth and Space Exploration (SESE) at Arizona State University invites applications for the postdoctoral research scholar position of Exploration Fellow. The mission of the postdoctoral fellowship is to foster SESE’s interdisciplinary research program by attracting and supporting outstanding early career scientists and engineers to pursue independent research in collaboration with SESE faculty. Application deadline: 1 December 2018

Postdoctoral Fellowships - Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution for Science, USA
Applications are invited for postdoctoral fellowship positions to conduct independent research in the fields of astronomy, cosmochemistry, geochemistry, geophysics, planetary science or volcanology. Department of Terrestrial Magmatism staff scientists pursue these fields in the general quest for improved understanding of the origin and evolution of Earth and other planets and planetary systems. The successful applicant’s primary field of research should overlap with one or more of these fields, but collaboration with other research areas on campus is encouraged. Application deadline: 1 December 2018

Carnegie Fellowships at the Geophysical Laboratory, USA
The Geophysical Laboratory invites applications for Carnegie Postdoctoral Fellowships. Current research at the Geophysical Laboratory falls primarily within three overlapping thematic areas: Earth and Planetary Science, Astrobiology and the Origin of Life, and the Chemistry and Physics of Materials at Extreme Conditions. Synergies among these thematic areas, as well as links to many closely related research pursuits at Carnegie’s co-located Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, provide Carnegie Fellows with exceptional opportunities for collaboration. Application deadline: 1 December 2018

Graduate Student Fellowship - American Museum of Natural History
The Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) seeks students for collaborative AMNH-Columbia University and City University of New York (CUNY) Ph.D. programs. Fields of research include mineralogy, marine geochemistry, and meteoritics/planetary sciences. Students must apply simultaneously to Columbia or CUNY and AMNH and are expected to conduct research under the direction of a museum scientist. Application deadline: 15 December 2018

Bateman Postdoctoral Fellowship - Yale University, USA
The Department of Geology and Geophysics at Yale University announces an annual competition for a Bateman Postdoctoral Fellowship. We welcome applicants with research interests across the full range of disciplines within Earth and planetary sciences, including studies of geophysics, planetary sciences, tectonics, oceans, atmosphere, climate dynamics, geochemistry, paleoclimatology, geobiology, and the evolution of life. Application deadline: 15 December 2018

Tenure Track Position – Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA
The successful candidate will complement our existing interdisciplinary strengths in biology, biological oceanography, and marine ecology. We are particularly interested in applicants who conduct research in marine zooplankton ecology using novel observational, experimental and/or modeling approaches. Expertise may include (but is not limited to) physiology, behavior, trophic interactions, or the impacts of climate change. Application deadline: 17 December 2018

Tenure-track Assistant or Associate Professor in Geochemistry - Laurentian University, Ontario, Canada
The Harquail School of Earth Sciences at Laurentian University invites applications for a tenure-track Assistant or Associate Professor position in Geochemistry to begin in July 2019. We seek an innovative geochemist with outstanding teaching and research skills who will enhance our status as one of the leading global centers in the study of Mineral Deposits and Precambrian Geology. Application deadline: 31 December 2018

Associate Professor of Isotope Geochemistry / Geochemistry - University of Tennessee, USA
The Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, invites applications for a nine-month, tenure-line position in Isotope Geochemistry and Geochemistry to be hired at the rank of Associate Professor. The candidate will provide primary oversight of a newly created ICP-MS core facility, which will include quadrupole and multi-collector ICP-MS instruments, a laser ablation system, and a clean laboratory housed in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, located within the newly constructed Strong Hall. Application deadline: 7 January 2019

Two PhD Positions in Volcano Geodynamics - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
We are seeking two excellent PhD students to participate on a project in the Gregg Lab at the University of Illinois to investigate several volcano targets in Alaska. The goal of this work is to use statistical data assimilation to link geodynamic magma chamber models with geophysical observations including GPS, InSAR, and seismicity to assess the stress evolution and eruption potential of Alaskan volcanoes exhibiting unrest. Application deadline: 15 January 2019

DCO in the News

23 October 2018 Discovering new mining deposits with big data
By Heidi Vella for Mine Magazine
Following in the footsteps of tech firms like Amazon and Google, US mineralogists and scientists are experimenting with machine learning and big data to discover new, potentially lucrative mineral deposits...

17 October 2018 Meet the Endoterrestrials
By Douglas Fox for The Atlantic
They live thousands of feet below the Earth’s surface. They eat hydrogen and exhale methane. And they may shape our world more profoundly than we can imagine...

17 October 2018 Taking to the skies: measuring volcanic gas emissions using drones
University of Cambridge
Many of the world’s most hazardous volcanoes are either too remote or too active to make measurements safely from the ground. Cambridge Earth Scientists are now taking to the skies to investigate the gases being released by these elusive volcanoes...

15 October 2018 Dance on a volcano: Bagana, Papua New Guinea
By Brendan McCormick Kilbride for Geoscientist
Our first glimpse of Bagana volcano was an ominous silhouette just visible through the dense rainforest covering the shore to our left...

11 October 2018 75-million-year old ocean microbes live forever on almost zero energy
By Lucas Joel for New Scientist
Deep below the surface of the South Pacific Ocean, buried beneath 70 metres of seafloor sediment, there are microbes that may be about 75 million years old...

1 October 2018 Life thrives within the Earth’s crust
By Catherine Offord for The Scientist
From journeys into mines to explorations of volcanoes on the ocean floor, deep voyages reveal the richness of the planet’s deep biosphere...

26 September 2018 Mysterious "microbial dark matter" dominates our planet
By Aristos Georgiou for Newsweek
Nearly every environment on Earth is dominated by “microbial dark matter,” according to researchers from the University of Tennessee, Knoxville...

Learn more about DCO's Scientific Communities


Extreme Physics and Chemistry
The Extreme Physics and Chemistry Community is dedicated to improving our understanding of the physical and chemical behavior of carbon at extreme conditions, as found in the deep interiors of Earth and other planets.

Reservoirs and Fluxes
The Reservoirs and Fluxes Community is dedicated to identifying the principal deep carbon reservoirs, to determining the mechanisms and rates by which carbon moves among these reservoirs, and to assessing the total carbon budget of Earth.

Deep Energy
The Deep Energy Community is dedicated to developing a fundamental understanding of environments and processes that regulate the volume and rates of production of abiogenic hydrocarbons and other organic species in the crust and mantle through geological time.

Deep Life
The Deep Life Community is dedicated to assessing the nature and extent of the deep microbial and viral biosphere by exploring the evolutionary and functional diversity of Earth's deep biosphere and its interaction with the carbon cycle.

Thanks for reading! Send us items for future newsletters by emailing Katie Pratt of the DCO Engagement Team. 

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