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From the Deep, a monthly newsletter from DCO
March 2018


Deep Carbon Observatory

A diamond from the Cullinan mine in South Africa

This 232 carat diamond came from the Cullinan mine in South Africa. A diamond fragment from the same mine contained a calcium silicate perovskite inclusion, confirming the existence of this mineral, likely the fourth most abundant mineral on Earth. Read more about the discovery here.
Image credit: Petra Diamonds

Letter from the Director

March roared in like a lion with the publication of an exciting paper from DCO’s Diamonds and Mantle Geodynamics of Carbon group in Nature. The paper, from Reservoirs and Fluxes Community members Fabrizio Nestola (University of Padua, Italy), Graham Pearson (University of Alberta, Canada), and colleagues, confirms the identity of a pocket of calcium silicate perovskite in a diamond that formed 780 kilometers below Earth’s surface. This is the first direct observation of Earth’s fourth most common mineral.
 
A new study from Extreme Physics and Chemistry Community members Susannah Dorfman (Michigan State University, USA), James Badro (Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, France and Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Switzerland), and colleagues suggests that slabs of subducted surface material may reach the core-mantle boundary bearing diamonds and marble. The work is published in the journal Earth and Planetary Science Letters.
 
Recent meetings and workshops have kept the DCO in high gear. In late February, DCO co-sponsored a symposium at Rice University, USA that convened representatives of academia and industry to explore whole Earth carbon cycling as a topic of mutual interest. In mid-March, the Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Research (HPSTAR) Director Ho-Kwang “Dave” Mao organized the Deep Volatiles, Earth, and Environments Summit with sponsorship from DCO and the Chinese Academy of Engineering. The summit, held at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Shanghai, China, attracted over 170 participants, many new to DCO. Following the summit, the DCO Executive Committee met at HPSTAR. And just last week, the DCO synthesis project, Earth in Five Reactions, brought 50 scientists to Washington, DC, USA for a workshop to identify the carbon-based reactions that make Earth unique in the solar system.
 
Please note a few deadlines that are fast approaching. Abstract submissions for Goldschmidt 2018 are due on 30 March, AGU 2018 Fall Meeting session proposals are due on 18 April, and applications to participate in core logging activities as part of the Oman Drilling Project are due on 30 April. Also, the inaugural Gordon Research Conference on Deep Carbon Science is accepting applications until 20 May; I encourage you to apply early to ensure your place at the meeting.
 
Lastly, keep an eye on the DCO website in the coming weeks; we will unveil its new design in April. The pace of DCO discovery and publication promises to keep accelerating.

 

Craig Schiffries, DCO Director
Carnegie Institution for Science, Geophysical Laboratory
Washington DC, USA

News Features

Super-Deep Diamond Holds First Glimpse of Long-Expected Mantle Mineral
In theory, calcium silicate perovskite (CaSiO3, abbreviated as Ca-Pv) is one of the most common minerals on Earth, but until recently, no one had ever held it in their hands. Lab experiments, modeling, and seismology data all suggest that Ca-Pv makes up a large portion of the deep mantle. But when researchers synthesized Ca-Pv under high pressure and temperature conditions in the lab, its structure would break down at surface pressure and room temperature. The recent discovery of an unusual inclusion in a rare, super-deep diamond means that Ca-Pv is no longer just theory. DCO Reservoirs and Fluxes Community members Fabrizio Nestola (University of Padua, Italy) and Graham Pearson (University of Alberta, Canada) worked with Maya Kopylova (University of British Columbia, Canada) and colleagues to confirm the identity of a pocket of Ca-Pv in a diamond that formed 780 kilometers deep inside Earth. Their analysis also revealed that the carbon in the surrounding diamond originally came from ocean crust, suggesting that surface carbon travels incredibly deep into the mantle to be recycled. Their study appears in a new paper in the journal Nature. Read more...

Earth’s Core-Mantle Boundary May Be Decorated in Marble and Diamonds
Scientists agree that during subduction, the edge of one tectonic plate sinks beneath another, moving surface carbon in the form of carbonates into Earth’s mantle, which accounts for more than 80% of Earth’s volume and represents a giant carbon reservoir. But whether those carbonates sink all the way through the mantle to the core-mantle boundary, or completely melt and break apart somewhere higher up, is still a controversial question. Answering this question would impact our understanding of what materials make up the mantle, and how much carbon it holds. A new study published in the journal Earth and Planetary Science Letters finds that carbonates may reach the deep lower mantle in the form of high-pressure marble rich in calcium carbonate. DCO Extreme Physics and Chemistry Community members Susannah Dorfman (Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Switzerland, now at Michigan State University, USA), James Badro (Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP), France and Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Switzerland), and colleagues simulated the transport of carbon to the lower mantle by combining dolomite, a sedimentary mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, with iron under high pressure and temperature. The researchers discovered that while the magnesium carbonate part of the mineral broke down to yield diamonds and other compounds, the calcium carbonate portion remained stable. The study suggests that slabs of subducted surface material may reach the core-mantle boundary bearing diamonds and marble. Read more...

A Deep Dive Into the Carbon-Hydrogen Cycle
Earth feels immobile beneath our feet, but deeper down are swirls of solid rock. These slow-moving, vertical loops, called mantle convection, bring hot mantle material up to the surface to grow new seafloor, while dragging the edges of tectonic plates back down into the mantle. As part of this recycling process, mantle convection shuttles carbon dioxide and water from the surface into the mantle, which may encourage melting and help continue this underground circulation. DCO Extreme Physics and Chemistry Community member Eglantine Boulard with Deep Life Community member François Guyot (both at Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux et de Cosmochimie, France), and colleagues have discovered a new way that hydrogen, bound up in water, may move within the deep lower mantle. In the lab, the researchers reacted carbon dioxide with goethite, a common iron mineral, under high temperatures and pressures. Above 2,000 degrees Celsius, the mixture formed a tetrahedral-shaped carbonate compound and water. Their findings, published in a new paper in the journal National Science Review, suggest that deep carbon and hydrogen cycles may be more complex and more interconnected than previously thought. Read more...

Earth in Five Reactions: Scientists Debate the Features Making Earth Unique in the Solar System
About 50 Deep Carbon Observatory scientists from each of the four DCO Science Communities and seven countries spent two days (22-23 March 2018) pondering what carbon-related reactions make Earth unique. This huge question made for some lively debates, friendly disagreements, and ultimately consensus about the most important carbon-related reactions on the planet. The so-called Earth in Five Reactions (E5R) workshop is part of DCO’s suite of synthesis activities. Jie (Jackie) Li (University of Michigan, USA), Simon Redfern (Cambridge University, UK), and Donato Giovannelli (ELSI Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan) led the workshop held at the Carnegie Institution for Science in Washington, DC, USA. Read more...

Expanding Opportunities for Deep Carbon Science in China 
A suite of Deep Carbon Observatory activities and meetings in Shanghai and Beijing during March 2018 contributed to the ongoing advance of deep carbon science in China. As the DCO Science Network grows in China, the DCO is strengthening its ties with Chinese colleagues and identifying new opportunities for collaboration and research. Read more...

Whole Earth Carbon Cycling — Bridging Academia and Industry
The 2018 Industry-Rice Earth Science Symposium (IRESS 2018) assembled experts from academia and industry in Houston, Texas from 22-23 February 2018 to discuss “Unconventional Views of Whole Earth Carbon Cycling: From Formation to Production” at Rice University’s Baker Institute for Public Policy. Each year the workshop—hosted by Rice’s Department of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences—identifies and explores a new topic of mutual interest to scientists in both academia and industry. The Deep Carbon Observatory sponsored the attendance of early career scientists to the fifth annual IRESS in 2018 due to its focus on whole Earth carbon cycling and the symposium’s growing tradition of building industry partnership and academic networking opportunities. Read more...

Oman Phase Two Drilling Complete: Opportunity for Core Logging on D/V Chikyu
On Wednesday, 28 February 2018, members of the Oman Drilling Project field team completed Phase Two drilling. This marked the end of the drilling campaign for the project, while launching an exciting new phase of analysis and discovery. The cores collected during this second drilling phase are headed to the Japanese scientific drilling vessel D/V Chikyu. This summer, scientists will gather aboard Chikyu to use its state-of-the-art laboratory facilities to analyze the core samples and compare them with Phase One cores, which were drilled from December 2016 - March 2017. Phase Two core logging will take place from 5 July - 5 September 2018, again, using D/V Chikyu’s sophisticated onboard lab. If you would like to take part in Phase Two core description activities, please apply here by 30 April 2018. Read more...

Inaugural Gordon Research Conference on Deep Carbon Science
In 2018, the Gordon Research Conferences (GRC) will hold their first conference focused entirely on the emerging field of deep carbon science. Since 2009, the Deep Carbon Observatory has supported several Gordon Research Conferences that dovetail with DCO themes, including GRCs on biomineralization, origins of the solar system, high pressure, geobiology, and natural gas hydrates. However, each of these conferences has only covered a small subset of DCO research. DCO is excited to announce that GRC has established a new conference fully dedicated to the deep carbon cycle. The inaugural Deep Carbon Science GRC will focus on deep carbon in the context of geological time and will be held from 17-22 June 2018 at Bryant University in Rhode Island, USA. The conference “will spotlight the evolution of deep carbon in Earth’s biological and nonbiological reservoirs over 4.6 billion years.” It will gather Earth, life, and physical scientists to explore planetary assembly, early deep carbon reservoirs, early forms of deep life, and the carbon cycle through geological time. APPLY NOW

Goldschmidt 2018: Sessions of Special Interest to DCO
The 28th Goldschmidt Conference will take place at the John B. Hynes Veterans Memorial Convention Center in Boston, USA, from 12-17 August 2018. The program of the meeting includes numerous sessions and workshops of special interest to DCO, and plenary talks from DCO Science Network members Fumio Inagaki (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Japan) and Bernard Marty (Centre de Recherches Pétrographiques et Géochimiques, France). Please contact the engagement@deepcarbon.net(DCO Engagement Team, Subject: Goldschmidt 2018 Sessions) to add additional items to this page. Abstract submission deadline: 30 March 2018

Upcoming Events

EGU General Assembly, Vienna, Austria, 8-13 April 2018
The EGU General Assembly 2018 will bring together geoscientists from all over the world to one meeting covering all disciplines of the Earth, planetary, and space sciences. 

4D Workshop: Deep-Time Data Driven Discovery and the Evolution of Earth, Washington DC, USA, 4-6 June 2018
The objective of this workshop is to explore ways to advance our understanding of Earth’s complex co-evolving geosphere and biosphere through the collection, analysis, and visualization of large and growing data resources.

Deep Carbon Science Gordon Research Conference, Bryant University, USA, 17-22 June 2018
The meeting will cover deep carbon science in the context of time. We will spotlight the evolution of deep carbon in Earth’s biological and nonbiological reservoirs over 4.6 billion years. Application deadline: 20 May 2018 

MELTS/FPMD Training School, Milos, Greece
Early career scientists are invited to attend a training school on thermodynamic modeling of natural silicate liquids and their equilibria with minerals and fluids, from atomistic to macroscopic scales. Registration now open.

Goldschmidt 2018, Boston, USA, 12-17 August 2018
Goldschmidt is the foremost annual, international conference on geochemistry and related subjects, organized by the Geochemical Society and the European Association of Geochemistry. View DCO sessions of special interest here. Abstract submission deadline: 30 March 2018

School on Convective and Volcanic Clouds Detecting, Monitoring, and Modeling, Nicolosi, Italy, 28 September-6 October 2018 
The purpose of the school is to train students in the detection, monitoring, and modeling of convective and volcanic clouds, including utilizing a variety of techniques, instruments, and satellite data. Early bird registration deadline: 15 May 2018

GSA Annual Meeting, Indianapolis, USA, 4-7 November 2018
The annual meeting of the Geological Society of America will highlight the Indiana area geology, as well as the wider world of geoscience research. 

AGU Fall Meeting, Washington DC, USA, 10-14 December 2018
The American Geophysical Union’s Fall Meeting is the largest Earth and space science meeting in the world. Session proposal deadline: 18 April 2018

Funding Opportunities

US National Science Foundation: Cyberinfrastructure for Sustained Scientific Innovation - Data and Software: Elements and Frameworks
The Cyberinfrastructure for Sustained Scientific Innovation (CSSI) umbrella program encompasses the long-running Data Infrastructure Building Blocks and Software Infrastructure for Sustained Innovation programs, as NSF seeks to enable funding opportunities that are flexible and responsive to the evolving and emerging needs in data and software cyberinfrastructure. The CSSI umbrella program anticipates four classes of awards: 1. Elements (either Data Elements or Software Elements): These awards target small groups that will create and deploy robust capabilities for which there is a demonstrated need that will advance one or more significant areas of science and engineering. 2. Framework Implementations (either Data Frameworks or Software Frameworks): These awards target larger, interdisciplinary teams organized around the development and application of common infrastructure aimed at solving common research problems faced by NSF researchers in one or more areas of science and engineering, resulting in a sustainable community framework serving a diverse community or communities. 3. Planning Grants for Community Cyberinfrastructure (either Community Data Cyberinfrastructure Planning Grants or Community Software Cyberinfrastructure Planning Grants): Planning awards focus on the establishment of long-term capabilities in cyberinfrastructure, which would serve a research community of substantial size and disciplinary breadth. 4. Community Cyberinfrastructure Implementations (either Community Data Cyberinfrastructure Implementations or Community Software Cyberinfrastructure Implementations): These Community Software Cyberinfrastructure Implementations focus on the establishment of long-term hubs of excellence in cyberinfrastructure and technologies, which will serve a research community of substantial size and disciplinary breadth. This particular CSSI solicitation requests only Elements and Framework Implementations classes of awards. Application deadline: 18 April 2018

Simons Postdoctoral Fellowships in Marine Microbial Ecology
The Simons Foundation invites applications for postdoctoral fellowships to support research on fundamental problems in marine microbial ecology. The foundation is particularly interested in applicants with training in different fields who want to apply their experience to understanding the role of microorganisms in shaping ocean processes, and vice versa, as well as applicants with experience in modeling or theory development. While these cross-disciplinary applicants will receive particular attention, applicants already involved in ocean research are also encouraged to apply. The foundation anticipates awarding five fellowships in 2018. Applicants should have received their Ph.D. or equivalent degree within three years of the fellowship’s start date. Preference will be for applicants with no more than one year of postdoctoral experience. Applicants may be citizens of any country. Awards can only be issued to nonprofit research universities or research institutions in the U.S. Application deadline: 15 June 2018

Deep Life Cultivation Internship Program
DCO's Deep Life Community (DLC) realizes that the majority of deep microbial life has been resistant to cultivation in the laboratory, which complicates the characterization of physiological characteristics of deep community members. However, recent studies using bioreactor-cultivation techniques, under high pressure and/or temperature, have resulted in successful enrichment of previously uncultivable archaeal and bacterial components that mediate biogeochemical carbon cycling in the deep subsurface. To maintain and strengthen cultivation strategies in future deep life missions, the DLC will support early career researchers to visit some key laboratories (Inagaki - Kochi, Japan, Bartlett - La Jolla, USA, and others) to learn and practice newly developed cultivation and cultivation-dependent molecular/biogeochemical techniques, using samples from the DLC’s field missions.

C-DEBI: Rolling Call for Research Exchange Proposals
The Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) facilitates scientific coordination and collaborations by supporting student, postdoctoral, and faculty exchanges to build, educate, and train the deep subseafloor biosphere community. We award small research exchange grants for Center participants. These grants may be used to support research, travel for presenting C-DEBI research at meetings, or travel exchanges to other partner institutions or institutions that have new tools and techniques that can be applied to C-DEBI research. We anticipate ~10 awards of $500-5,000 with additional matched funds to be granted annually. 

New Publications

View more papers in the DCO publications browser.

CaSiO3 perovskite in diamond indicates the recycling of oceanic crust into the lower mantle
Fabrizio Nestola, Nester Korolev, Maya Kopylova, Nicola Rotiroti, D. Graham Pearson, Martha G. Pamato, Matteo Alvaro, Luca Peruzzo, John J. Gurney, Andy E. Moore, and James Davidson
Nature doi:10.1038/nature25972

Carbonate stability in the reduced lower mantle
Susannah M. Dorfman, James Badro, Farhang Nabiei, Vitali B. Prakapenka, Marco Cantoni, and Philippe Gillet
Earth and Planetary Science Letters doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2018.02.035

CO2-induced destabilization of pyrite-structured FeO2Hx in the lower mantle
Eglantine Boulard, Francois Guyot, Nicolas Menguy, Alexandre Corgne, Anne-Line Auzende, Jean-Phillippe Perrillat, and Guillaume Fiquet
National Science Review doi:10.1093/nsr/nwy032

Employment Opportunities

John W. Miles Postdoctoral Fellowship, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, USA
The Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP) at Scripps Institution of Oceanography has an opening for the John W. Miles Postdoctoral Fellowship in Theoretical and Computational Geophysics starting in late 2018. Funding from the Green Foundation for Earth Sciences is available to support a postdoctoral position in the broad areas of computational and theoretical geophysics, including machine learning applied to geosciences. Applicants must contact potential mentors at IGPP prior to the application deadline, to ensure a feasible research collaboration. The position is available for two years for applicants that are less than five years from PhD degree. Application deadline: 30 March 2018

Associate Professor of Petrology and Crustal Processes, University of Oxford, UK
We seek to appoint an Associate Professor in Petrology and Crustal Processes from 1 September 2018 or as soon as possible thereafter. The successful candidate will work at the Department of Earth Sciences and will hold a Non-Tutorial Fellowship at St Cross College. The appointment will be initially for 5 years at which point, upon completion of a successful review, the postholder will be eligible for reappointment to the retiring age. We welcome applications from scientists working in all aspects of petrology, but particularly applied to understanding the processes of subduction, orogeny, rifting, crustal fluid systems, and/or natural resources. The successful applicant will have a doctorate in Earth sciences or a related subject. They will also have excellent interpersonal skills necessary for undertaking teaching, a track record of obtaining research grants, experience of supervising research students and evidence of ability to lead an internationally excellent research program and to attract external funding for it. The main duties of the post are to carry out research at an international level, and to teach, supervise and examine undergraduate and postgraduate students. The appointee will be a Fellow of St Cross College. Application deadline: 5 April 2018

ELSI Research Scientist Position, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan
The Earth-Life Science Institute (ELSI) of Tokyo Institute of Technology was launched in December 2012 as part of the World Premier International Research Center Initiative (WPI) of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. The WPI grant is awarded to institutes with a research and administrative vision to become globally competitive centers that can attract the best scientists from around the world to come to work in Japan. ELSI aims to answer the fundamental questions of how Earth was formed, how life originated in the environment of early Earth, and how this life evolved into complexity. ELSI pursues these questions by studying the "origin and evolution of life" and the "origin and evolution of Earth" through an interdisciplinary collaboration between the fields of Earth, Life, and Planetary Sciences. By understanding the early Earth context that allowed for the rise of initial life, we also work to establish a greater understanding of the likelihood of extraterrestrial life elsewhere in the universe. In order to succeed in this mission, ELSI seeks highly motivated individuals who wish to pursue original research and also actively engage in cross-disciplinary discussions and synergistic research projects. Application deadline: 14 April 2018

Postdoctoral Position in Earth Science, American Museum of Natural History, USA
The Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, American Museum of Natural History, seeks a candidate for a unique, three-year postdoctoral fellowship consisting of 75% research and 25% education. The research will be conducted in fields related to the interests of curatorial faculty member Denton S. Ebel, particularly research that uses the meteorite and/or sedimentary record to understand what chondrite meteorites reveal about the early solar system, and/or what impact ejecta reveal about Earth history. The teaching component supports an innovative Master-of-Arts in Teaching program designed to educate teacher candidates in both the science and pedagogy required to successfully teach the New York State Regents Earth sciences curriculum, which includes about 50% Earth history topics. Field experience is an advantage in this regard. The successful applicant must demonstrate the ability to develop a robust research program, teach collaboratively with museum professionals in the MAT program particularly during summer field experience and research exercises, and assist in coordinating teacher candidate science activities. 

Tenure track position in “volcanic risks,” University of Clermont-Auvergne, France
The candidate will be part of the volcanology group of the “Laboratoire Magmas & Volcans.” Research activities will be focused on physical and socioeconomic impacts of volcanic events, hazard–risk evaluation, vulnerability resilience assessment, and risk/hazard communication strategies. The candidate will be required to develop collaborative projects with other laboratories. Our aim is to recruit an experienced specialist in the area of volcanic hazards with recognized international experience. 

Postdoctoral Position in Physical Volcanology at the ENS Lyon, France
The Department of Geology at the Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, France invites applications for a postdoctoral position in the field of physical volcanology. This is a 12-month contract funded by the IDEX Lyon that could be extended for another six months by the ENS Lyon. The position must be filled before the end of the year 2018. The aim of the postdoctoral work will be to study the primitive magmatic processes acting during the early times of the terrestrial planets. The main focus will be investigating the link between impact cratering and magmatism using mechanical models of magma ascent below craters and the analysis of available remote-sensing observations on the terrestrial planets (the Moon, Mars, and Mercury). 

PhD studentship in volcano remote sensing at Michigan Technological University, USA
Applications are invited for a NASA-funded PhD studentship in the Department of Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences at Michigan Technological University. The student will be trained to use a suite of NASA satellite observations to detect and quantify volcanic emissions of sulfur dioxide and other trace gases, to advance understanding of volcanic processes and the atmospheric, environmental, and health impacts of volcanic degassing. The project will involve close collaboration with scientists at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD, USA. Up to three years of PhD student support is available; PhD students are encouraged to apply for other fellowships and small grants to supplement their funding.

DCO in the News

Read more DCO News here

11 March 2018: Here’s what scientists can learn from newly-discovered deep-Earth mineral
By Chelsea Gohd for Futurism
The fourth most abundant material on Earth has never been actually seen in nature — until now...

9 March 2018: Why so many diamonds are making science headlines this week
By Mary Beth Griggs for Popular Science
They’re windows into the heart of the Earth...

9 March 2018: U of A researcher finds never-seen mineral inside 'super-deep diamond'
CBC News
The mineral, calcium silicate perovskite, is the fourth-most abundant mineral on Earth...

9 March 2018: Never-before-seen mineral found inside a diamond
By Brigit Katz for Smithsonian
The diamond acted as a container, keeping a piece of calcium silicate perovskite stable as it moved towards the Earth’s surface...

9 March 2018: We've only just found a natural sample of Earth's fourth most abundant mineral
By Josh Davis for IFLScience
Despite being one of the most abundant minerals on the planet, scientists had never actually found calcium silicate perovskite on the surface of the Earth...

8 March 2018: Rare deep diamond with perovskite shows ocean crust recycles into Earth’s mantle
By Himanshu Goenka for International Business Times
Diamonds may or may not be a girl’s best friend, but they sure are dear to scientists for what they reveal about the interior of Earth...

8 March 2018: Newly-found 'super-deep diamond' in Africa contains a rare Earth mineral never seen before on our planet
By Cecile Borkhataria for The Daily Mail
A never-before-seen mineral has been discovered in a stunning 'super-deep diamond' formed in the Earth's mantle...

8 March 2018: Super-deep diamond reveals mineral from earth's mantle never before seen by human eyes
By Katherine Hignett for Newsweek
Scientists have found a never-before-seen mineral in a diamond formed deep in the Earth's mantle...

8 March 2018: Never-before-seen mineral found inside a 'super deep' diamond
By Sarah Gibbens for National Geographic
The find can tell scientists how ocean crust is recycled throughout Earth's interior...

8 March 2018: Secrets to Earth's interior found trapped in diamonds
By Ivan Semeniuk for The Globe and Mail
New findings about Earth's deep interior have come to light, with two teams of scientists this week announcing separate discoveries of rare minerals trapped in diamonds...

7 March 2018: This tiny diamond contains a mineral that's never been seen before
By Brandon Specktor for Live Science 
A schist in the hand may be quite continental, but diamonds are a geologist's best friend...

7 March 2018: Super-deep diamond provides first evidence in nature of Earth's fourth most abundant mineral
Phys.org
For the first time, scientists have found Earth's fourth most abundant mineral—calcium silicate perovskite—at Earth's surface...

7 March 2018: Diamond discovery under pressure
Science Daily
Super-deep diamond provides first evidence in nature of Earth's fourth most abundant mineral, indicating the very deep recycling of oceanic crust...

Learn more about DCO's Scientific Communities

 

Deep Life

The Deep Life Community is dedicated to assessing the nature and extent of the deep microbial and viral biosphere by exploring the evolutionary and functional diversity of Earth's deep biosphere and its interaction with the carbon cycle.

Deep Energy

The Deep Energy Community is dedicated to developing a fundamental understanding of environments and processes that regulate the volume and rates of production of abiogenic hydrocarbons and other organic species in the crust and mantle through geological time.

Extreme Physics and Chemistry

The Extreme Physics and Chemistry Community is dedicated to improving our understanding of the physical and chemical behavior of carbon at extreme conditions, as found in the deep interiors of Earth and other planets.

Reservoirs and Fluxes

The Reservoirs and Fluxes Community is dedicated to identifying the principal deep carbon reservoirs, to determining the mechanisms and rates by which carbon moves among these reservoirs, and to assessing the total carbon budget of Earth.